United Nations Security Council imposes sanctions on Libyan authorities in bid to stem violent repression | UN NEWS CENTRE | FEB 26, 2011
The Security Council today voted unanimously to impose sanctions against the Libyan authorities, slapping the country with an arms embargo and freezing the assets of its leaders, while referring the ongoing violent repression of civilian demonstrators to the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Arming Libya rebels not allowed by UN resolutions, legal experts warn US | THE GUARDIAN | MAR 30, 2011
After Hillary Clinton said it would be legal to send arms to support the uprising, lawyers analysing the terms of the UN’s 26 February arms embargo said it would require a change in the terms for it not to breach international law.
“The embargo appears to cover everybody in the conflict which means you can’t supply arms to rebels,” said Philippe Sands QC, professor of international law at University College London.
Asked whether the US itself would arm Libya revolutionaries, Susan Rice, the US ambassador to the UN, said: “We have not made that decision but we’ve not certainly ruled that out.”
February’s UN security council resolution 1970 on the arms embargo states that all member states must prevent the supply to the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya – the Libyan nation – of arms including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment and spare parts. The embargo also relates to the provision of technical assistance, training or financial and bans the provision of mercenaries.
Lawless: Obama authorizes secret help for Libya rebels | REUTERS | MAR 31, 2011
President Barack Obama has signed a secret order authorizing covert U.S. government support for rebel forces seeking to oust Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, government officials told Reuters on Wednesday.
The CIA, which declined comment on the Obama authorization, has inserted small groups of clandestine operatives to gather intelligence for air strikes as part of a shadow force of Westerners that the United States hopes can help bleed Gadaffi’s military, The New York Times reported, citing unnamed American officials.
In addition to the CIA operatives, dozens of British special forces and MI6 intelligence officers are also working in Libya, the newspaper said.
Nightmare In Libya: Thousands Of Surface-To-Air Missiles Unaccounted For | ABC | SEP 27, 2011
The White House announced today it planned to expand a program to secure and destroy Libya’s huge stockpile of dangerous surface-to-air missiles, following an ABC News report that large numbers of them continue to be stolen from unguarded military warehouses.
Currently the U.S. State Department has one official on the ground in Libya, as well as five contractors who specialize in “explosive ordinance disposal”, all working with the rebel Transitional National Council to find the looted missiles, White House spokesperson Jay Carney told reporters.
“We expect to deploy additional personnel to assist the TNC as they expand efforts to secure conventional arms storage sites,” Carney said. “We’re obviously at a governmental level — both State Department and at the U.N. and elsewhere — working with the TNC on this.”
ABC News reported today U.S. officials and security experts were concerned some of the thousands of heat-seeking missiles could easily end up in the hands of al Qaeda or other terrorists groups, creating a threat to commercial airliners.
Though Libya had an estimated 20,000 man-portable surface-to-air missiles before the popular uprising began in February, Assistant Secretary of State Andrew Shapiro told ABC News today the government does not have a clear picture of how many missiles they’re trying to track down.
Peter Bouckaert of Human Rights Watch first warned about the problem after a trip to Libya six months ago. He took pictures of pickup truckloads of the missiles being carted off during another trip just a few weeks ago.
“I myself could have removed several hundred if I wanted to, and people can literally drive up with pickup trucks or even 18 wheelers and take away whatever they want,” said Bouckaert, HRW’s emergencies director. “Every time I arrive at one of these weapons facilities, the first thing we notice going missing is the surface-to-air missiles.”
The ease with which rebels and other unknown parties have snatched thousands of the missiles has raised alarms that the weapons could end up in the hands of al Qaeda, which is active in Libya.
“There certainly are dangerous groups operating in the region, and we’re very concerned that some of these weapons could end up in the wrong hands,” said Bouckaert.
“I think the probability of al Qaeda being able to smuggle some of the stinger-like missiles out of Libya is probably pretty high,” said Richard Clarke, former White House counterterrorism advisor and now a consultant to ABC News.
Tommy Vietor, spokesman for the National Security Council, told ABC News in a statement similar to Carney’s remarks that, “Since the beginning of the crisis, we have been actively engaged with our allies and partners to support Libya’s efforts to secure all conventional weapons stockpiles, including recover, control, and disposal of shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles.”
“Once these missiles walk away from these facilities, they’re very difficult to get back, as the CIA realized in Afghanistan,” said Bouckaert.
When the Afghan mujahideen were fighting the Soviets more than two decades ago, the CIA supplied the Afghans with 1,000 Stinger surface-to-air missiles, which had a devastating effect on Soviet military aircraft. After the Soviets had retreated, however, the CIA spent millions of dollars trying to buy back the remaining missiles from the Afghan fighters.
According to Bouckaert, the CIA spent up to $100,000 a piece to reacquire the Stingers.
“In Libya we’re talking about something on the order of 20,000 surface-to-air missiles,” said Bouckaert. “This is one of the greatest stockpiles of these weapons that has ever gone on the loose.”
Just so you understand, the White House announcement came after the ABC News report.
Tiny Kingdom’s Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern | WALL STREET JOURNAL | OCT 17, 2011
Between APRIL AND AUGUST, at least 18 cargo planes left Qatar for Libya, filled with assault rifles, rocket-propelled grenade launchers and other small arms, as well as military uniforms and vehicles, say people familiar with the situation.
With the blessing of Western intelligence agencies, Qatar flew at least 18 weapons shipments in all to anti-Gadhafi rebel forces in 2012, the majority directly to militias run by Islamist leaders.
About a dozen other Qatari-funded shipments came via Sudan, according to previously undisclosed Libyan intelligence documents.
U.S.-Approved Arms for Libya Rebels Fell Into Jihadis’ Hands | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 5, 2012
WASHINGTON — The Obama administration secretly gave its blessing to arms shipments to Libyan rebels from Qatar last year, but American officials later grew alarmed as evidence grew that Qatar was turning some of the weapons over to Islamic militants, according to United States officials and foreign diplomats.
The experience in Libya has taken on new urgency as the administration considers whether to play a direct role in arming rebels in Syria, where weapons are flowing in from Qatar and other countries.
The Obama administration did not initially raise objections when Qatar began shipping arms to opposition groups in Syria, even if it did not offer encouragement, according to current and former administration officials. But they said the United States has growing concerns that, just as in Libya, the Qataris are equipping some of the wrong militants.
The United States, which had only small numbers of C.I.A. officers in Libya during the tumult of the rebellion, provided little oversight of the arms shipments. Within weeks of endorsing Qatar’s plan to send weapons there in spring 2011, the White House began receiving reports that they were going to Islamic militant groups. They were “more antidemocratic, more hard-line, closer to an extreme version of Islam” than the main rebel alliance in Libya, said a former Defense Department official.
The Qatari assistance to fighters viewed as hostile by the United States demonstrates the Obama administration’s continuing struggles in dealing with the Arab Spring uprisings, as it tries to support popular protest movements while avoiding American military entanglements. Relying on surrogates allows the United States to keep its fingerprints off operations, but also means they may play out in ways that conflict with American interests.
Boeing Delivers Qatar Emiri Air Force’s 4th C-17 Globemaster III | BOEING | DEC 10, 2012
“The C-17’s reliability, along with its unique strategic and tactical capabilities, has expanded our reach and ability to support missions worldwide on a moment’s notice,” said Brig. Gen. Ahmed Al-Malki, head of Qatar’s airlift committee. “Doubling our fleet strengthens our ability to support humanitarian, disaster-relief and peacekeeping missions.”
Qatar’s C-17s earlier this year supported the NATO-led operation in Libya and provided relief for drought victims in Kenya. In early 2010, QEAF C-17s delivered humanitarian aid to Haiti and Chile following devastating earthquakes.
Qatari arms shipments continued long after the fall of Libyan government in Tripoli, suggesting involvement beyond what was publicly known.
Arms Airlift to Syria Rebels Expands, With Aid From C.I.A. | NEW YORK TIMES | MAR 24, 2013
With help from the C.I.A., Arab governments and Turkey have sharply increased their military aid to Syria’s opposition fighters in recent months, expanding a secret airlift of arms and equipment for the uprising against President Bashar al-Assad, according to air traffic data, interviews with officials in several countries and the accounts of rebel commanders.
After the collapse of the Libyan government, Gadhafi’s arms stockpiles were raided, and arsenals of weapons also found their way into the hands of Islamist rebels in Syria.
In Turnabout, Syria Rebels Get Libyan Weapons | NEW YORK TIMES | JUN 21, 2013
During his more than four decades in power, Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi of Libya was North Africa’s outrageously self-styled arms benefactor, a donor of weapons to guerrillas and terrorists around the world fighting governments he did not like.
Many of the same people who chased the colonel to his grave are busy shuttling his former arms stockpiles to rebels in Syria. The flow is an important source of weapons for the uprising and a case of bloody turnabout, as the inheritors of one strongman’s arsenal use them in the fight against another.
Those weapons, which slipped from state custody as Colonel Qaddafi’s people rose against him in 2011, are sent on ships or Qatar Emiri Air Force flights to a network of intelligence agencies and Syrian opposition leaders in Turkey. From there, Syrians distribute the arms according to their own formulas and preferences to particular fighting groups, which in turn issue them to their fighters on the ground, rebels and activists said.
Qatari C-17 cargo aircraft have made at least three stops in Libya this year — including flights from Mitiga airport in Tripoli on Jan. 15 and Feb. 1, and another that departed Benghazi on April 16, according to flight data provided by an aviation official in the region. The planes returned to Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar. The cargo was then flown to Ankara, Turkey, along with other weapons and equipment that the Qataris had been gathering for the rebels, officials and rebels said.
‘Libya’s Cache of Toxic Arms All Destroyed’ | NYT | FEB 2, 2014
Since November, Libyan contractors trained in Germany and Sweden have worked to destroy the weapons in a region where extremists linked to Al Qaeda are gaining greater influence. The last artillery shell was destroyed on Jan. 26, officials said.
Libyan officials announced the discovery in November 2011 and February 2012 of two hidden caches of mustard, or nearly two tons, that had not been declared by Colonel Qaddafi’s government That brought the total declared amount of chemical to 26.3 tons.
Unlike the majority of Libya’s mustard agents, which were stored in large, bulky containers, the new caches were already armed and loaded.
Dynasafe equipment destroys Libyan chemical weapons | DYNASAFE | FEB 18, 2014
Dynasafe International, a leading enterprise in the demilitarisation industry, has today announced its contribution to the successful completion of the destruction of lethal chemical weapons in Libya. The toxic arms, including artillery shells and aerial bombs, have been eliminated with Dynasafe-designed equipment in collaboration with Parsons Corporation, an international engineering, construction, technical and professional services firm headquartered in California, and UXB International, a Virginia-based explosives remediation company. The last chemical weapon was destroyed on 26 January, 2014, completing the disposal of 1.6 metric tons of weaponized sulphur mustard as declared by Libya to the OPCW in 2012.
How Qatar is funding the rise of Islamist extremists | TELEGRAPH | SEP 20, 2014
Western officials have tracked the Qatari arms flights as they land in the city of Misrata, about 100 miles east of Tripoli, where the Islamist militias have their stronghold. Even after the fall of the capital and the removal of Libya’s government, Qatar is “still flying in weapons straight to Misrata airport”, said a senior Western official.
Syrian Chemical Weapons Elimination Project | PARSONS | FEB 13, 2017
The multinational team assembled to eliminate Syria’s chemical arsenal faced significant challenges, as the battle lines of the Syrian civil war constantly shifted, creating a hostile security environment. In addition, the team had to contend with an extensive inventory of WMDs—1,000 metric tons of chemical warfare materials, including mustard and methylphosphonic difluoride (DF)—at multiple locations. These stockpiles of Syria’s declared chemical agents were collected for elimination at sea, far from communities and cities.
On August 18, 2014, the U.S. government announced the successful elimination of a 600‑ton cache of chemical agents aboard the Cape Ray—several weeks ahead of schedule. In a statement issued the same day, Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel congratulated the Cape Ray crew for finishing its unprecedented work despite a long deployment and a complex operation that required careful coordination among stakeholders. He commended the crew for performing flawlessly every step of the way, with strict adherence to safety and with no impact on the surrounding environment, and said that they had made an important and enduring contribution to global security.
As ISIS closed in, a race to remove chemical-weapon precursors in Libya | WA POST | SEP 13, 2016
While some precursor materials were destroyed in 2015, nearly 500 tons of dual-use, toxic industrial chemicals remained at Ruwagha.
While U.S. and Libyan officials believed the Islamic State did not know about the presence of the chemicals, they feared that the site, which had also been used to store conventional weapons, might be targeted anyway. Already, Islamic State fighters were suspected of employing chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria; this week, U.S. warplanes destroyed a chemical-weapons factory in northern Iraq.
Their concern grew sharply when a second checkpoint was attacked in May, just over a mile from the facility. “We started really to think how to remove the chemicals from where they are,” Gebril said, or at least to move them from that vulnerable location.
In mid-July, the unity government renewed an earlier request to the OPCW, made more urgently this time, for help in removing the material. But securing international support to transport the chemicals would not be simple.
In Washington, American officials received regular intelligence information and satellite imagery of the site. In mid-July, Libyan officials piled about 20 barrels — Canada had helped the government purchase new, safer containers — onto a small convoy of trucks and drove them across the desert to the coastal city of Misurata.
In late August, the materials were loaded at the port of Misurata onto a Danish ship, which was accompanied across the Mediterranean by Danish and British naval ships. They were bound for the German city of Münster, where the chemicals will be destroyed in a commercial facility over six to nine months.
Since these transfers, Qatar has become a major buyer of US military hardware.
Military intel predicted rise of ISIS in 2012, detailed arms shipments from Benghazi to Syria | FOX | MAY 18, 2015
Seventeen months before President Obama dismissed the Islamic State as a “JV team,” a Defense Intelligence Agency report predicted the rise of the terror group and likely establishment of a caliphate if its momentum was not reversed.
Hillary Clinton Knew BACK IN 2011 About US Weapons Shipments from Libya to Syria | GW PUNDIT
FOX News confirmed that the US was running guns from Benghazi to Syria before the attack on the US consulate on September 11, 2012.