18 U.S. soldiers were killed and 73 wounded in an attempt to apprehend warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid at the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia. The American public was appalled at the deaths and support for American involvement in African affairs suffered as a result.

It was against this backdrop that the Rwandan Genocide began.

Rwandan Genocide | APR 6, 1994 –

On April 6, 1994, Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the President of Burundi, were both killed when their plane was shot down on approach to Kigali Airport in Rwanda.

Responsibility for the assassinations has never been clearly established, however, the resulting chaos was the catalyst for the masacre of Tutsis at the hands of Rwanda’s Hutu majority.

Ambassador Bushnell warned the Clinton Administration in advance

Bushnell, who had been visiting the area just weeks before, released a memorandum immediately following the assassinations.

In it, she predicted widespread violence and the military take-over of the Rwandan government and urged the U.S. government to take action to maintain order.

Partly as a result of the Somali incident, the U.S. government chose not to heed Bushnell’s recommendations, and on the next day, April 7, the Rwandan Genocide began when several Tutsi government officials and moderate Hutu Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana were killed by Hutu militias.

Clinton did nothing.

Rwanda genocide: 100 days of slaughter | BBC | APR 7, 2014

In just 100 days in 1994, some 800,000 people were slaughtered in Rwanda by ethnic Hutu extremists. They were targeting members of the minority Tutsi community, as well as their political opponents, irrespective of their ethnic origin.

How was the genocide carried out? Systematically.

With meticulous organisation.

Lists of government opponents were handed out to militias who went and killed them, along with all of their families.

Neighbours killed neighbours and some husbands even killed their Tutsi wives, saying they would be killed if they refused.

At the time, ID cards had people’s ethnic group on them, so militias set up roadblocks where Tutsis were slaughtered, often with machetes which most Rwandans kept around the house.

Thousands of Tutsi women were taken away and kept as sex slaves.

Did anyone try to stop it? No.

The UN and Belgium had forces in Rwanda but the UN mission was not given a mandate to stop the killing.

The US was determined not to get involved in another African conflict.

The Belgians and most UN peacekeepers pulled out after 10 Belgian soldiers were killed.

The French, who were allies of the Hutu government, sent a force to set up a supposedly safe zone but were accused of not doing enough to stop the slaughter in that area.

Rwanda’s current president has accused France of taking part in the massacres – a charge denied by Paris.

How did it end? Paul Kagame – The Global Elite’s Favorite Strongman

The well-organised Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), backed by Uganda’s army, gradually seized more territory, until 4 July, when its forces marched into the capital, Kigali.

RPF leader and President, Paul Kagame, has been hailed for overseeing rapid economic growth in the tiny country. He has also tried to turn Rwanda into a technological hub and is very active on Twitter.

His critics say he does not tolerate dissent and several opponents have met unexplained deaths.

Vision 2020 | MINECOFINdotGOV

Vision 2020 is a Government development program in Rwanda, launched in 2000 by Rwandan president Paul Kagame.

Its main objective is transforming the country into a knowledge-based middle-income country, thereby reducing poverty, health problems and making the nation united and democratic.

The programme consists of a list of goals which the government aims to achieve before the year 2020:

Good governance
An efficient state
Skilled human capital, including education, health and information technology
A vibrant private sector
A world-class physical infrastructure
Modern agriculture and livestock


The Government of Rwanda (GOR) is pressing forward with development of diversified renewable energy sources to satisfy the majority of its power generation needs by 2012.

MININFRA Donor Coordinator Eva Paul told Wadelton Rwanda is on track to achieve its energy goals and that “the political will is there.” United States-based Contour Global is working to extract methane gas accumulating in Lake Kivu.

Construction of two new hydroelectric plants will add 37MW to the national grid within three years. Additionally, the governments of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi and Tanzania are planning additional multinational hydro projects in Rusizi and Rusumo, she said.

NGOs and development agencies such as USAID are assisting the GOR electrify off-grid health clinics and administrative centers with solar power.

American entrepreneurs are taking the lead in providing solar power solutions to rural communities. Sam Dargan, CEO of Great Lakes Solar Energy, told Wadelton he was interested in providing solar appliances to rural communities–not for social or conservation reasons–but because it was profitable.

Josh Kefauver, COO of United States-based Manna Energy, is working with the GOR to equip rural communities and secondary schools with solar powered water purifiers using ultraviolet light to kill harmful bacteria.

Dargan, citing an example of donor-provided solar powered cell phone chargers to health care workers, said such practices made it more difficult for him to sell similar products for a profit. Free donor-provided resources have inhibited private sector investment in renewable energy, he stated.


The government of Rwanda (GOR) is aggressively promoting “clean and green” energy (Ref A), conservation and reforestation.

The impacts of climate change are cross-cutting and have affected agriculture, health, energy and degradation of eco-systems. The report estimates that the risk to the rural population from malaria could increase by 150 percent by 2050, adding an additional economic burden to the country.

The Director General of the Rwanda Environmental Management Authority (REMA) Dr. Rose Mukankomeje promoted early warning systems, introducing of crop species resistant to environmental stress, developing renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources and pursuing aggressive reforestation and afforestation programs.

On October 28 the GOR approved a U.S. private sector-sponsored biofuels project in eastern Rwanda. Run by American-owned Eco-Fuel Global and British-owned Eco-Fuel Positive, the project will develop land for production of jatropha and build vegetable oil extraction facilities to process jatropha oil and jatropha seed cake (used as fertilizer).

Still among the poorest countries in the world, Rwanda would benefit from more flexible assistance programs and active private sector investment supported by OPIC, EXIM and USTDA (as in the case of Contour Global’s methane and Eco-Fuel Global’s biofuels). This could make the climate change challenge a win-win for Rwandan and American investors by encouraging more investment and mutually beneficial trade.

Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda | ACCORD | OCT 26, 2010

 Empirical evidence obtained and secondary data sources indicate that the genocide in Rwanda destroyed not only human resources and social and cultural structures but also infrastructure, development facilities and natural resources which had serious negative consequences on the total environment.

Spread of malaria

The primary research also shows that malaria has now become evident in Cyangugu and other areas where previously this was rare. Most leaders reported that after the genocide malaria posed a significant problem with serious consequences for much of the population. Leaders attributed the prevalence of the disease to poor environmental management and poverty.

Poverty, Global Health and Infectious Disease: Lessons from Haiti and Rwanda | NCBI | SEP 1, 2012

As demonstrated above, poverty and associated disease rarely arise de novo. Heavy burdens of disease predictably strike those places, most often resource-poor communities, where structural violence weighs most heavily. Moreover, structural violence—institutionalized biases and inequalities including racism, elitism, gender inequality, militarism, and economic policy that fosters inequity—often emanates from global centers of power and privilege, and increases the risk of encounter with communicable disease [18].

In 1996, Prudence Bushnell was appointed ambassador to Kenya.

Stationed at the US Embassy in Nairobi, she used her office to push Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi to institute democratic reforms and to root out corruption in his government, a major drag on Kenya’s economy.

Bushnell soon became alarmed at the vulnerability of the U.S. embassy compound to attack.

Before Bombings, Omens and Fears | NEW YORK TIMES | JAN 9, 1999

In the spring of 1998, Prudence Bushnell, the U.S. ambassador to Kenya, sent an emotional letter to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright begging for the secretary’s personal help.

Ms. Bushnell, a career diplomat, had been fighting for months for a more secure embassy in the face of mounting terrorist threats and a warning that she was the target of an assassination plot.

The department had repeatedly refused to grant her request, citing a lack of money. But that kind of response, she wrote Albright, was “endangering the lives of embassy personnel.”

The CIA and the FBI had been amassing increasingly ominous and detailed clues about potential threats in Kenya, officials said. But the State Department bureaucracy still dismissed Ms. Bushnell.

Albright took no action. And three months later, on Aug. 7, the American Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya were simultaneously attacked with car bombs. Twelve American diplomats and more than 200 Africans were killed in Kenya.

The State Department has acknowledged that Ms. Bushnell raised questions about security before the bombing. But a close examination of events in the year before the assaults, based on interviews with officials throughout the U.S. government, shows her concerns were more intense, more well-founded, more specific, and more forcefully expressed than has previously been known.

The CIA repeatedly told State Department officials in Washington and in the Kenya Embassy that there was an active terrorist cell in Kenya connected to Osama bin Laden, the Saudi exile who is accused of masterminding the attack.

The CIA and FBI investigated at least three terrorist threats in Nairobi in the year before the bombing and took one seriously enough to send a counter-terrorism team from CIA headquarters. The agency ultimately concluded that threat was unfounded, but some officials believe the inquiry was botched, and the agency’s inspector general is investigating how it was handled.

State Department officials brushed aside Gen. Anthony Zinni, commander of the U.S. Central Command, who had visited Nairobi on his own and warned that the Nairobi embassy was an easy and tempting target for terrorists. Zinni’s offer to send his own specialists to review security in Nairobi was turned down by the State Department.

Bombs Explode at 2 U.S. Embassies in Africa; Scores Dead | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 8, 1998

Powerful terrorist car bombs exploded just minutes apart outside U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania yesterday, killing at least 81 people — including eight Americans — and injuring more than 1,600. With dozens more Kenyans possibly buried in the rubble of a building next to the embassy, authorities said they fear the death toll could rise much higher.

As U.S. disaster relief units and anti-terrorism specialists were rushed to the two East African capitals, President Clinton angrily vowed to bring justice to those who committed the “cowardly attacks.”

Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright rushed back to Washington, stating that the administration will “spare no effort to use all means at our disposal to track down and punish the perpetrators of these outrageous acts.”

House Speaker Newt Gingrich said the bombings “should be a reminder to all of us that it is a dangerous world as we enter the 21st century. We need much better human intelligence, much more sophisticated efforts to go after terrorists and others.”

U.S. received detailed warning of embassy bombing, officials say Egyptian man reportedly told of plans 9 months before Kenya attack | BALTIMORE SUN | OCT 23, 1998

NAIROBI, Kenya — Nine months before the attack on the American Embassy here, U.S. intelligence officials received a detailed warning that Islamic radicals were plotting to blow up the building, according to Kenyan and American officials.

The warning forecast the Aug. 7 bombing in several particulars, the officials said. It came from an Egyptian man who American officials now believe was involved in the simultaneous terrorist assaults on the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

The Egyptian, Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed, is now in jail in Tanzania, charged by local prosecutors with bombing the embassy there.

Tanzanian authorities have not allowed Ahmed to be interviewed, and it was unclear what motivated him to alert authorities about a plot in which he appears to have played a role. He told the Kenyans that in the past he had provided authorities with information about Islamic radicals because he wanted to see them arrested and rehabilitated rather than caught committing a crime for which they would be executed.

A Tanzanian court refused to release Ahmed on bail this week and ruled that FBI agents would be permitted to interrogate him.

Tanzanian investigators suspect he was a central figure in the plot.

The Clinton administration has not sought to extradite Ahmed from Tanzania. Several non-American diplomats in the region speculated that the United States is allowing the Tanzanians to try Ahmed because they fear his trial in America might bring to light his dealings with U.S. authorities and other Western intelligence services.

In the days after the bombings, the administration acknowledged that it had spurned requests from the American ambassador in Kenya, Prudence Bushnell, to move the entire embassy to a safer location. The State Department would not say whether her cables mentioned Ahmed’s warning.

Warnings to the FBI: Could the Bombings Have Been Prevented? | PBS

A year before the U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa, the FBI and the Kenya police raided the house of Wadih El Hage in Nairobi, Kenya in August of 1997 and found a very disturbing letter on his computer hard drive. The letter, which the FBI believes was written by Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, AKA Haroun Fazul, outlines the presence of a bin Laden terrorist “cell” in Nairobi and clearly states the member’s knowledge of bin Laden’s call to kill Americans.

The Warnings

As early as 1994, United States intelligence officials were receiving worrisome reports about Osama bin Laden.

By 1996, the United States Justice Department quietly convened a grand jury in New York to investigate Osama bin Laden, and FBI investigators began building a case against him.

The CIA was simultaneously gathering intelligence about bin Laden and his associates.

Some of this evidence led the investigators to Kenya. In Kenya, there were two concrete warnings about an embassy attack during 1997.

According to intelligence sources, the CIA and FBI kept U.S. Ambassador to Kenya Prudence Bushnell and her staff fully informed about the warnings and the possible threat.

However, some embassy officials dispute this, saying they were not kept in the loop about the seriousness of the threat.

Throughout this period, Bushnell was pleading with the State Department to provide a new building or seriously upgrade security at the old building.

The State Department did not consider Nairobi a high-risk location and ignored Bushnell’s pleas.

The Letter

Summer, 1997 — Wadih El Hage, who worked as a secretary for bin Laden in the Sudan, was found to be living in Nairobi, Kenya.

The FBI, CIA and Kenyan police cooperated on the August, 1997 raid on Wadih El Hage’s home. Under the pretext of searching for stolen goods, they entered the house and took Mr. El Hage’s computer.

On the hard drive of that computer, investigators found a chilling letter, which they now believe was written by El Hage’s houseguest, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed or Haroun Fazul. Fazul was also linked to bin Laden in the Sudan and had been living with the El Hage family in Kenya.

The letter clearly outlines the presence of a clandestine “cell” in Nairobi, operating under the instructions of “the Haj” or Osama bin Laden.

Just after the raid, the investigators interviewed Wadih El Hage in Nairobi. According to El Hage’s mother-in-law, the FBI repeatedly told both El Hage and his wife to leave the country. The agents insinuated that the family was in danger should they remain in the country. El Hage took them seriously and returned to the United States with his family in September of 1997.

It is unclear whether the investigators knew about Haroun Fazul at this time, or understood that he had been the author of the letter. Fazul somehow escaped their notice and continued his activities in Nairobi.He would later be declared the mastermind of the Nairobi bombing. In fact, on the day of the actual bombing, he drove the lead truck that led the bomb to the United States Embassy.

Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed

November, 1997 – Near the end of 1997, an Egyptian named Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed walked into the United States Embassy in Nairobi and told a CIA agent that he knew of a plan to detonate a truck bomb in the parking garage of the embassy.

He was interrogated by Kenyan police and admitted that he had taken part in surveillance of the embassy, including taking photos.

For unknown reasons, the CIA did not take Mr. Ahmed’s statements seriously and he was deported. The CIA issued two intelligence reports on the warning, but called into question the credibility of Mr. Ahmed.

Mr. Ahmed was arrested in Tanzania just after the 1998 summer bombings and has been charged in conjunction with the Dar Es Salaam bombing attack.

Doctor who helped CIA track bin Laden still languishes in Pakistan jail | TELEGRAPH | MAY 2, 2016
Iran: Scientist who gave US nuclear intelligence executed | FOX NEWS | AUG 07, 2016
How an Iranian’s Spy Saga Ends, 6 Years Later: He’s Executed | NEW YORK TIMES | AUG 7, 2016
Cotton: Clinton discussed executed Iranian scientist on email | WASHINGTON EXAMINER | AUG 7, 2016

50 U.S.C. § 421 : US Code – Section 421: Protection of identities of certain United States undercover intelligence officers, agents, informants, and sources

(a) Disclosure of information by persons having or having had access to classified information that identifies covert agent Whoever, having or having had authorized access to classified information that identifies a covert agent, intentionally discloses any information identifying such covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such covert agent and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such covert agent’s intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 15 years, or both.

(b) Disclosure of information by persons who learn identity of covert agents as result of having access to classified information Whoever, as a result of having authorized access to classified information, learns the identify of a covert agent and intentionally discloses any information identifying such covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such covert agent and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such covert agent’s intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

(c) Disclosure of information by persons in course of pattern of activities intended to identify and expose covert agents Whoever, in the course of a pattern of activities intended to identify and expose covert agents and with reason to believe that such activities would impair or impede the foreign intelligence activities of the United States, discloses any information that identifies an individual as a covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such individual and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such individual’s classified intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.

(d) Imposition of consecutive sentences A term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be consecutive to any other sentence of imprisonment.

Getting back to the bombings:

Although Kenyans and Tanzanians accounted for the vast majority of dead and injured in today’s attacks, the bombings together killed and injured more Americans than any terrorist attack on a U.S. installation abroad since a truck bomb exploded outside the Khobar Towers military housing complex near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, on June 25, 1996, killing 19 Americans and injuring more than 500 U.S. servicemen and Saudis.

According to journalist Lawrence Wright, the Nairobi operation was named after the Holy Kaaba in Mecca; the Dar es Salaam bombing was called Operation al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, but “neither had an obvious connection to the American embassies in Africa.

Bin Laden initially said that the sites had been targeted because of the ‘invasion’ of Somalia;

Then he described an American plan to partition Sudan, which he said was hatched in the embassy in Nairobi.

He also told his followers that the genocide in Rwanda had been planned inside the two American embassies.”

Wright concludes that bin Laden’s actual goal was “to lure the United States into Afghanistan, which had long been called ‘The Graveyard of Empires.'”

Who investigated this stuff? | FBI

Comey Politicized the FBI, Brennan the CIA | NEWSWEEK | FEB 20, 2017

John O. Brennan

His term as CIA Director coincided with revelations that the U.S. government conducted massive levels of global surveillance, that the CIA had hacked into the computers of U.S. Senate employees, and the release of the U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture.

While riding a bus to class at Fordham, he saw an ad in The New York Times that said the CIA was recruiting, and he felt a CIA career would be a good match for his “wanderlust” and his desire to do public service.[6] His studies included a junior year abroad learning Arabic and taking Middle Eastern studies courses at the American University in Cairo.[4][6] In 1976, he voted for Communist Party USA candidate Gus Hall in the presidential election; he later said that he viewed it as a way “of signaling my unhappiness with the system, and the need for change.”[16]

Brennan began his CIA career as an analyst, presumably in the Washington D.C. area, and spent 25 years with the agency.[2][6][18] At one point in his career, he was a daily intelligence briefer for President Bill Clinton.[6] In 1996 he was CIA station chief in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia when the Khobar Towers bombing killed 19 U.S. servicemen.[6] In 1999 he was appointed chief of staff to George Tenet, then-Director of the CIA.[4][6] Brennan became deputy executive director of the CIA in March 2001.[4] He was director of the newly created Terrorist Threat Integration Center from 2003 to 2004, an office that sifted through and compiled information for President Bush’s daily top secret intelligence briefings and employed the services of analysts from a dozen U.S. agencies and entities.[19]

North Bergen man is homeland security assistant for President Obama | NORTH JERSEY | DEC 5, 2009

The journey that took John O. Brennan from 74th Street in North Bergen to a West Wing office where President Obama relies on him to coordinate fights against al-Qaida and swine flu started on the bus he rode to Fordham University.

“Using a legitimate term, ‘jihad,’ meaning to purify oneself or to wage a holy struggle for a moral goal, risks giving these murderers the religious legitimacy they desperately seek but in no way deserve,” he said in a speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in August.

Time in Arab world

 Brennan’s understanding of the Arab world and the Middle East is the product of years of work there for the CIA.

“I would spend time with the tribes, go out and spend several days with them, travel out into the different areas of the country. I find the Arab world a fascinating place,” he said.

“It’s unfortunate that terrorist incidents have created a false impression of anti-American sentiment in the Arab world. There are elements — radicals, extremists — who harbor those anti-U.S. sentiments, but there are a lot of very positive views toward the United States,” he said.

He saw terrorism close up as CIA station chief in Riyadh in 1996 when a truck bomb blew up the Khobar Towers housing complex and killed 19 U.S. servicemen.

When FBI Director Louis Freeh came out for the investigation, the bombing was not the only thing he and Brennan had to talk about. Freeh had grown up down the block in North Bergen, and Brennan knew him from the neighborhood even though he was several years older.

Keane said he never expected him to join the CIA, and for part of Brennan’s career his cover story was that he was working in the Middle East for the State Department. Later, Keane recalled Brennan having spent the summer after freshman year with a cousin who was working for the Agency for International Development in Indonesia, and visiting Bahrain on the way home.

“I wondered if he had even been recruited that early,” Keane said.

Brennan said the trip after his freshman year “made a lasting impression on me that the world was a big place, that there was more than just North Bergen and Hudson County.”

When a Fordham professor told him about an opportunity to spend his junior year abroad at American University in Cairo, Egypt, he jumped at it and spent part of his time learning Arabic.

Pasquale “Pat” D’Amuro | BLOOMBERG

Much of Mr. D’Amuro’s twenty-six year career in the FBI has been devoted to counterterrorism, in which he is an internationally recognized expert.

After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Mr. D’Amuro was appointed Inspector in Charge of the FBI’s investigation of those attacks.

Mr. D’Amuro served as Assistant Director of the Counterterrorism Division at FBI Headquarters and, later, Executive Assistant Director for Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence. In these capacities, he was instrumental in the creation and management of the FBI’s Terrorism Threat Integration Center and Terrorism Watch List.

Global Risk & Investigative Diligence, LLC | Chairman & CEO
Giuliani Security & Safety LLC, a division of Giuliani Partners LLC | Chairman & CEO (former)
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) | Assistant Director in Charge of the New York FBI Office

Decision Sciences | Chairman of the Board of Advisors.


“Pat’s long experience in conducting counterterrorism investigations includes heading the PENTTBOM investigation and overseeing the investigations of the first World Trade Center bombing, the embassy bombings in East Africa, and the U.S.S. Cole attack. He possesses strong leadership abilities, demonstrated during his tenure as Associate Special Agent in Charge and Acting Special Agent in Charge of the New York Field Office. These investigative and leadership talents, refined by the experience of a 22-year career as a Special Agent of the FBI, make him well prepared to take on the challenge of directing the Counterterrorism Division during a critical period of reorganization and refocusing of the work of the FBI.”


Decision Sciences | Board of Advisors
The Aspen Institute | Member
The Trilateral Commission | Member
The Council on Foreign Relations | Member

Department of Justice, District of Brooklyn | Counsel to the Attorney General for Intelligence Policy (1985 – 1988) | Mentored by Rudolph Giuliani and FBI Director Louis Freeh.
Department of Justice, Southern District of New York | US Attorney International Organized Crime and White Collar Crime (1988 – 1991)

Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General

International Programs | (1991  1993) to assist in establishing the newly created Office of International Programs, the predecessor to the Executive Office for National Security.
Chief of Staff to the Assistance Attorney General, Criminal Division | (1993  1995) played a critical role in establishing the Division’s international training and rule of law programs.
Director of International Affairs, Criminal Division | (1995 – 1997) | which serves as the U. S. Central Authority for extradition and mutual legal assistance, and works with the Department of State in the negotiation of international law enforcement treaties.
Acting Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division | (1997  1998) where she oversaw international law enforcement and training matters, and acted as an advisor to the Attorney General and Deputy Attorney General on international law enforcement policy.
Advisor to the Attorney General & Deputy Attorney General for International Law Enforcement Policy | (1997  1998)
Counsel to AG, Office of Intelligence Policy and Review for National Security Policy & Operations | (1998 – 2000) managing matters related to national security policy and operations for the Department of Justice. In this capacity she headed the office of Intelligence Policy and Review, an office that:

provides legal advice and recommendations to the Attorney General and the Department of Justice regarding national security matters, reviews executive orders, directives and procedures relating to the intelligence community, and approves certain intelligence-gathering activities, especially those matters related to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

Executive Office of the President 

Deputy Assistant to the President & Deputy National Security Advisor For Combating Terrorism | (2003 – 2004)
Assistant to President George W. Bush for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism |
(2004 – 2008)

US Coast Guard |  Assistant Commandant for Intelligence (2000  2003)
Homeland Security Council | Chairman | (2004 – 2008)
Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) | Chairman of Board of Directors

Protiviti Inc. | Advisory Board | (2015 – present)
IrisGuard Incorporated | Advisory Board
MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc. | Executive Vice President of Worldwide Government, Legal and Business Affairs
Aquamarine Investment Partners | Senior Counselor
SAP National Security Services, Inc. | Chair
Monument Capital Group, LLC | Operating Advisor
Freeport-McMoRan Inc. | Independent Director
The Western Union Company | Independent Director
SIGA Technologies | Director | (2011 – 2014)
Business Executives for National Security, Inc.  | Director
Bipartisan Policy Center | Director
Baker Botts L.L.P. | Corporate Partner
CNN | National Security Expert Analyst

An Outsider’s Quick Rise To Bush Terror Adviser – Frances Townsend | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 27, 2005

In September of 2001, she worked for the Coast Guard as the intelligence chief. At the time, the Coast Guard was not part of the “intelligence community” and thus was not allowed to share sensitive information.

She helped the Coast Guard get added to intelligence legislation and transformed the agency’s priority from South American drug-smuggling to the vulnerability of America’s ports.

In Spring of 2003, Richard Clarke and General John A Gordon (Bush’s Homeland Security Chief) lobbied for Townsend, and as a result she was hired on to the National Security Council.

“Frances Townsend runs President Bush’s far-flung campaign against terrorism.”

“She obviously has the confidence of the president, and that has a huge impact on her ability to influence the process,” said Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff.

She is the ‘coordinator, the facilitator, the bridge,’ as FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III put it, between the powerful institutions and clashing egos of a war cabinet.

Among her many mentors, she counts Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, longtime FBI Director Louis J. Freeh and former White House counterterrorism czar Richard A. Clarke.

“Townsend has overseen an intelligence reorganization and is now directing the first White House review of its anti-terrorism campaign since the aftermath of Sept. 11, a process intended to broaden the struggle into a new ‘strategy against violent extremism.”

Until a few months prior to 9/11, she had run the Justice Department’s Office of Intelligence Policy and Review that decided which cases merited supersecret intelligence wiretaps, work that took her inside al Qaeda cases, such as the 1998 embassy bombings in Africa.”

Her office would be a focus of controversy after Sept. 11. As the gatekeeper for intelligence wiretap requests, Townsend’s office fought efforts to invoke the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act in matters that could result in criminal cases, fearing that prosecutors would use such surveillance to circumvent the more difficult threshold for obtaining a criminal wiretap. In practical terms, the result was what commission reports called “The Wall,” fencing off investigators from potentially useful information about suspects on American soil.

In an example cited by a bipartisan congressional commission, Townsend refused to endorse a secret intelligence wiretap on Los Alamos National Laboratories scientist Wen Ho Lee because the FBI’s interest in the case was “way too criminal.”


Secret Court’s Judges Were Warned About NSA Spy Data | WASHINGTON POST page 1 | WASHINGTON POST page 2 | FEB 9, 2006

FISA court is the secret panel created in 1978 in response to a public outcry over warrantless domestic spying by J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI

The FISA court secretly grants warrants for wiretaps, telephone record traces and physical searches to the Justice Department.

Both judges had insisted that no information obtained this way be used to gain warrants from their court, according to government sources, and both had been assured by administration officials it would never happen.

Both presiding judges agreed not to disclose the secret program to the 10 other FISA judges, who routinely handled some of the government’s most highly classified secrets.

The two heads of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court were the only judges in the country briefed by the administration on Bush’s program. The president’s secret order allows the National Security Agency to monitor telephone calls and e-mails between people in the United States and contacts overseas.

They convinced the judges to swear to secrecy, then they lied to them.

Twice in the past four years (2002-2006), a top Justice Department lawyer warned the presiding judge of a secret surveillance court that information overheard in President Bush’s eavesdropping program may have been improperly used to obtain wiretap warrants in the court, according to two sources with knowledge of those events.

Between 1979 and 2004, it approved 18,748 warrants and rejected five.

So early in 2002, they decided that any case in which the government listened to someone’s calls without a warrant, and later developed information to seek a FISA warrant for that same suspect, was to be carefully “tagged” as having involved some NSA information.

Shortly after the warrantless eavesdropping program began, then-NSA Director Michael V. Hayden and Ashcroft made clear in private meetings that the president wanted to detect possible terrorist activity before another attack. They also made clear that, in such a broad hunt for suspicious patterns and activities, the government could never meet the FISA court’s probable-cause requirement, government officials said.

Townsend lied.


The nation’s secret intelligence court has identified more than 75 cases in which it says it was misled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in documents in which the bureau attempted to justify its need for wiretaps and other electronic surveillance, according to the first of the court’s rulings to be released publicly.

In its opinion, the court rejected a secret request made by the Justice Department this year to allow broader cooperation and evidence-sharing between counterintelligence investigators and criminal prosecutors.

FBI. and the Justice Department tried to defy the will of Congress by allowing intelligence material to be shared freely with criminal investigators.

The standards of evidence required for electronic surveillance are much lower in many intelligence investigations than in criminal investigations, the authors of the law wanted to prevent the dissemination of intelligence information to criminal investigators or prosecutors.

In a number of cases the FBI and the Justice Department had made ”erroneous statements” in eavesdropping applications about ”the separation of the overlapping intelligence and criminal investigators and the unauthorized sharing of FISA information with FBI criminal investigators and assistant U.S. attorneys.

The court said that the FBI and the Justice Department were violating the law by allowing information gathered from intelligence eavesdrops to be used freely in bringing criminal charges, without court review, and that criminal investigators were improperly directing the use of counterintelligence wiretaps.

In one case, it said, the error appeared in a statement issued by the office of Louis J. Freeh, then the FBI director, in which the bureau said that target of an intelligence eavesdropping request ”was not under criminal investigation.”

In March of 2001, the court said, ”the government reported similar misstatements in another series of FISA applications in which there was supposed to be a ‘wall’ between separate intelligence and criminal squads in FBI field offices to screen FISA intercepts, when in fact all of the FBI agents were on the same squad and all of the screening was done by the one supervisor overseeing both investigations.”

Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 16, 2005

Months after the Sept. 11 attacks, President Bush secretly authorized the National Security Agency to eavesdrop on Americans and others inside the United States to search for evidence of terrorist activity without the court-approved warrants ordinarily required for domestic spying, according to government officials.

The previously undisclosed decision to permit some eavesdropping inside the country without court approval was a major shift in American intelligence-gathering practices, particularly for the National Security Agency, whose mission is to spy on communications abroad.

Nearly a dozen current and former officials, who were granted anonymity because of the classified nature of the program, discussed it with reporters for The New York Times because of their concerns about the operation’s legality and oversight.

Administration officials are confident that existing safeguards are sufficient to protect the privacy and civil liberties of Americans.

The White House asked The New York Times not to publish this article, arguing that it could jeopardize continuing investigations and alert would-be terrorists that they might be under scrutiny.

President Bush significantly eased limits on American intelligence and law enforcement agencies and the military.

The NSA breaks codes and maintains listening posts around the world to eavesdrop on foreign governments, diplomats and trade negotiators as well as drug lords and terrorists.

Traditionally, the FBI, not the NSA, seeks such warrants and conducts most domestic eavesdropping. Until the new program began, the N.S.A. typically limited its domestic surveillance to foreign embassies and missions in Washington, New York and other cities, and obtained court orders to do so.

Since 2002, the agency has been conducting some warrantless eavesdropping on people in the United States.

FBI Announces Restructuring | FBI | JUL 26, 2006

Director Robert S. Mueller announced structural changes to support the next phase of the FBI’s transformation efforts.

Director Mueller said, “The initial phase of our post-9/11 transformation was our immediate response to the new terrorist threat. The next phase focused on developing enhanced intelligence capabilities.

“Today we are aligning our organization to better support our priorities. This includes a strategic approach to human resources, IT, science and technology, facilities, and budget. This last phase is about institutionalizing the changes we have made to date, and building a foundation to support us into the future.

The FBI began a huge transformation after 9/11. The Bureau’s leadership shifted their focus from fighting conventional crime to fighting terrorism. Director Robert Mueller, describes the structural change as three phases.

Phase 1: The immediate response to 9/11, which included the investigation, establishment of new priorities and the shift toward countering terrorism.

Phase 2: Developed enhanced intelligence capabilities, including the creation of the Directorate of Intelligence and doubled the number of intelligence analysts.

Phase 3: Institutionalizing the changes made to date by altering the command structure to meet the demands of our increased pace of operations and build the foundation for the future.

In July, 2006, Mueller publicly announced the FBI’s advance into the final phase.

A Redeployment at a Realigned FBI | LA TIMES | JUL 27, 2006

WASHINGTON — The FBI broke with one of its most storied traditions Wednesday, announcing changes in its top management that, rather than elevating onetime agents, tapped officials with extensive experience outside of the bureau for several key positions.

Former officials of BP, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the CIA are named to lead branches as the bureau shifts its focus from crime to terrorism. – The changes leave FBI careerists in charge of the bureau’s criminal and intelligence branches. Mueller also named a longtime agent to fill a new position of associate deputy director, but he created three positions that he filled with bureau employees who made their mark elsewhere:

Donald E. Packham, a former BP senior executive, will oversee human resources and training.

Kerry E. Haynes, a former CIA director of technical collection, was picked to run a new science and technology branch.
Chief Information Officer Zalmai Azmi, whose resume includes a stint as a project manager at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, was given expanded duties in his role overseeing the bureau’s computer operations.

Mueller also established a unit to study threats from weapons of mass destruction and named Vahid Majidi, a scientist formerly at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, as its director.

An Outsider’s Quick Rise To Bush Terror Adviser – Frances Townsend | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 27, 2005

“Townsend has overseen an intelligence reorganization and is now directing the first White House review of its anti-terrorism campaign since the aftermath of Sept. 11, a process intended to broaden the struggle into a new ‘strategy against violent extremism.”

Frances Townsend is important.

Returning to the embassy bombings.

1998 US Embassies in Africa Bombings Fast Facts | CNN | JULY 27, 2015

August 7, 1998 – Almost simultaneously, bombs explode at U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, killing 224 people. More than 5,000 are wounded. Twelve of those killed in Kenya are U.S. citizens.

August 20, 1998 – The U.S. launches cruise missiles at suspected terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, in retaliation for the embassy bombings.

Africa embassy bombings: attacks that propelled Bin Laden into the limelight | THE GUARDIAN | JAN 20, 2015

On 20 August 1998, the factory was destroyed in cruise missile strikes launched by the United States military allegedly in retaliation for the truck bombattacks on its embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya on 7 August. The administration of President Bill Clinton justified the attacks, dubbed Operation Infinite Reach, on the grounds that the al-Shifa plant was involved with processing the deadly nerve agent VX, and had ties with the Islamist al-Qaeda group of Osama bin Laden.

Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory

The Al-Shifa (الشفاء, Arabic for “healing”) pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North, Sudan, was constructed between 1992 and 1996 with components imported from Germany, India, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States. It was opened 12 July 1997.

U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan | CNN | AUG 20, 1998

Sudanese television showed piles of rubble at the factory and fire raging in the distance. People were seen walking through the damage, wearing masks.

Sudanese officials reacted angrily to the attacks. Interior Minister Abdul Rahim told CNN in a telephone interview that the privately owned pharmaceutical firm had “nothing to do with chemical weapons.”

“We have no chemical weapons factory in our country,” he said.

A statement read on Sudanese television about an hour after the attack said, “The wrongful American air force launched air attacks on Sudan tonight which aimed at strategic and vital areas.” There was no report as to the number of casualties.

Well he wasn’t lying. They didn’t have any.

The Missiles of August | NEW YORKER | OCT 12, 1998

“The Sudanese plant, depicted by the White House as a chemical-warfare facility, was one of 2 targets in a retaliatory raid against Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden, who was linked to the bombings of American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania earlier that month; Tomahawks were also fired at sites in Afghanistan suspected to be terrorist training camps under the control of bin Laden.”

They bomb pharmacies, don’t they? | SALON | SEP 23, 1998

On Aug. 20, President Clinton personally ordered the leveling of the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant on the outskirts of Khartoum.

Sources in U.S. Intelligence apparently claimed that there was only one “window” through which to strike at bin Laden, and that the only time they could hope to hit his Afghan fastness by this remote means was on the night of Monica Lewinsky’s return to the grand jury.

Look at the Place! Sudan Says, ‘Say Sorry,’ but U.S. Won’t | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 20, 2005

“Sudan’s government wants the Shifa factory preserved just as it was shortly after 13 Tomahawk cruise missiles took it out in the early evening of August 20. The destroyed factory has become a monument of sorts, a place that Sudanese authorities say symbolizes the mistreatment they have suffered at the hands of the world’s superpower.”

“The government wants it as a showcase,” said Eltayeb Hag Ateya, director of the Peace Studies Institute at the University of Khartoum. “It’s still a thorn in Sudan-American relations. It will always be a point for the Sudanese government to bring up.”

“Well then, what was the hurry? A hurry that was panicky enough for the president and his advisors to pick the wrong objective and then, stained with embarrassment and retraction, to refuse the open inquiry that could have settled the question in the first place? There is really only one possible answer to that question. Clinton needed to look “presidential” for a day.”

The Observer noted:

“The loss of this factory is a tragedy for the rural communities who need these medicines” quoting Tom Carnaffin, technical manager with “intimate knowledge” of the destroyed plant.

A month later, Guardian correspondent Patrick Wintour elaborated that the plant “provided 50 percent of Sudan’s medicines, and its destruction has left the country with no supplies of chloroquine, the standard treatment for malaria”. (Wintour, Patrick, The Observer, 20 December 1998.)

He continued that, despite this, the

British government (who publicly backed the attack) refused requests “to resupply chloroquine in emergency relief until such time as the Sudanese can rebuild their pharmaceutical production”.

The factory was a principal source of Sudan’s anti-malaria and veterinary drugs according to the CBW Conventions Bulletin. | THE CBW CONVENTIONS BULLETIN

Coincidentally Malaria Spirals Out of Control

Malaria Surveillance – United States, 1999 | CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL


The 25.5% increase in malaria cases in 1999, compared with 1998, resulted primarily from increases in cases acquired in Africa and the Americas.

This increase is possibly related to a change in the system by which states report to CDC, but it could also have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, increased travel to these regions, improved reporting to state and local health departments, or a decreased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.

In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country where they acquired malaria.

Public Complain of Malaria Vaccine Shortage | GHANA WEB | NOV 3, 2000

The general public has raised concern and doubt over malaria vaccines, which they said are running short in health centres.

In an interview in health centres, members of the public expressed ‘strong interest’, calling for ‘immediate’ explanation from the health department over what they saw as the acute shortage of chloroquine vaccines at a time when malaria is taking a high toll on the population.

Time to act! What can USAID do for you?

United States Agency for International Development

USAID’s programs are authorized by the Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act, which the Congress supplements through directions in annual funding appropriation acts and other legislation. Although it is technically an independent agency, USAID operates subject to the foreign policy guidance of the President, Secretary of State, and the National Security Council. USAID operates in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.

Evaluating Malaria Interventions In Africa: A Review and Assessment of Recent Research | USAID | NOV 1999

“According to the most recent data, 40% (2,400 million) of the world population in over 90 countries is affected by malaria. In any given year, nearly 10% of the global population will suffer a case of malaria (Malaria International, 1998).”

“There are 300 – 500 million clinical cases of malaria worldwide each year with the majority occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 1998).”

“Malaria has been estimated to cause 9% of all disease in Africa (Nchinda, 1998).”

“According to recent data, there are 1.5 – 2.7 million deaths due to malaria each year, the bulk of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa where an estimated 360 million people live in areas of stable, endemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission (Snow et al., 1999a).”

Rolling Back Malaria | WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION | 1999

Almost 300 million clinical cases of malaria occur worldwide each year and over one million people die.

Almost 90% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where young children are the most affected.

Malaria is directly responsible for one in five childhood deaths in Africa and indirectly contributes to illness and deaths from respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and malnutrition.

The author then uses factual information in a manner that is very misleading.

“Chloroquine, perhaps the best ever antimalarial drug, and certainly the most widely used, is now failing against falciparum malaria in most areas of the tropical world.”


“In some areas, such as parts of South-East Asia and South America, chloroquine is now completely ineffective against P. falciparum malaria.”

True, but we’re talking about Africa. That’s where the problem is.

“In many parts of India and Africa, its effectiveness is falling rapidly.”

 True, but still misleading. Per the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), “despite declining use, CQ remained the first-line therapy for uncomplicated P.f. malaria in the majority of sub-Saharan countries until after 2000.” | US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

“For the treatment of falciparum malaria, the usual successor to chloroquine is a combination of pyrimethamine and a long acting sulphonamide (SP), which is also affordable and well tolerated. Five countries in Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland) have now been forced to switch from chloroquine to SP as the first line antimalarial treatment.”

“Unfortunately, in several of the areas where it has been deployed, notably South-East Asia and South America, P. falciparum has become widely SP-resistant.”

I thought we were talking about sub-Saharan Africa.

The resurgence of malaria (and AIDS) is largely the result of ‘foreign policy’ decisions, made during the Bush & Clinton administrations.

World Health Organization (WHO) backs controversial chemical for malaria control | SCI DEV NET | SEP 18, 2006

The controversial insecticide DDT — which most nations have banned — is back on the menu for malaria control after the World Health Organization reversed a 30-year old policy on Friday (15 September).

The move puts annual indoor spraying of DDT alongside drugs and bednets as one of the three main tools for controlling the disease.

“The scientific and programmatic evidence clearly supports this reassessment,” said Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, assistant director-general for HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria at the World Health Organization (WHO).

“[Indoor spraying] has proven to be just as cost-effective as other malaria prevention methods, and DDT presents no health risk when used properly.”

The chemical kills the mosquitoes that spread malaria. It helped eradicate the disease from southern Europe and North America in the 1960s.

DDT is also toxic to birds, fish and mammals. It accumulates in the food chain and remains in the environment for many years. In the 1970s, growing awareness of these threats led many countries to ban its use in agriculture.

Malaria linked to catastrophic spread of AIDS in Africa | SCI DEV NET | DEC 8, 2006

Research in Kenya indicates that the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS across Africa could be linked to malaria.

The work has important implications for public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need to tackle both diseases together.

There is considerable geographical overlap between HIV/AIDS — which infects over 40 million people in Africa — and malaria, which causes 500 million clinical infections each year.

People with both malaria and HIV/AIDS are more likely to transmit the HIV virus, according to the study published in the journal Science today (8 December). This may have promoted the rapid spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

“We have always known the relationship between [malaria and HIV/AIDS], but we did not know the impact it had on the spread: now we have a reference point,” says Ayub Manya, an epidemiologist with the Kenyan National Malaria Control Programme.

World Bank head praises DDT use against malaria | SCI DEV NET | MAR 19, 2007

World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz has praised South Africa’s malaria control programme, saying the country’s use of indoor residual spraying has reduced malaria episodes.

Wolfowitz says he will consider taking South Africa’s approach to other malaria-affected countries. He committed around US$48 million for malaria control in 14 African countries, which could increase, depending on success.

’The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group’

The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group – having a joint vision for a major contribution to a world free from malaria morbidity and mortality through vaccination – has its origins in discussions among representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
The European Commission (EC)
The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP)
The European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Extramural Malaria Program
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Malaria Vaccine Development Program (MVDP)
The Wellcome Trust
The World Health Organization (WHO) Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR)

This is not limited to Malaria or Clinton.

The President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.

Implementing Agencies

Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC)
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department of Defense (DoD)
Department of Commerce (DoC)
Department of Labor (DoL)
Peace Corps

The program has provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) to over 7.7 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings and supported HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for more than 56.7 million people as of 2014.[1] PEPFAR increased the number of Africans receiving ART from 50,000 at the start of the initiative in 2004.[2][3][4] PEPFAR has been called the largest health initiative ever initiated by one country to address a disease. The budget presented for the fiscal year 2016 included a request for $1.11 billion for PEPFAR as well as contributions from global organizations such as UNAIDS and private donors.

Clinton Health Access Initiative Donors

Africa’s clinical trial: Big Pharma deploys R&D in Africa | THIS IS AFRICA | JUN 24, 2013

Aside from the most contentious episodes, there was also a general lack of interest in product development.

Companies showed little inclination to research the so-called ‘neglected’ diseases, as they could not see any way to recoup their investment.

Only 13 new drugs were developed for this disease group between 1975 and 1996 out of more than 1,200 new drugs globally, and all but four were accidental by-products of other research.

By 1995, the 15 biggest pharmaceutical companies had virtually closed down tropical disease research efforts.

The End Of Antibiotics | NEWSWEEK | MAR 27, 1994

Indeed, it looks like medicine declared victory and went home too soon.

Every disease-causing bacterium now has versions that resist at least one of medicine’s 100-plus antibiotics.

The financial toll is steep, too. Because the first antibiotic prescribed often fails, the patient has to try several.

How did we get into this bind? In their eagerness to finish off the old diseases, doctors and patients have, paradoxically, given them new life.

Patients demand antibiotics for viral infections, like colds, that antibiotics cannot touch; every dose of antibiotics makes it that much easier for resistance to spread.

Also, doctors sometimes dispense antibiotics without knowing whether the sore throat, or even the pneumonia, is indeed caused by bacteria

Not the only epidemic caused by malpractice.

America’s Addiction to Opiods: Heroin and Prescription Drug Abuse | DRUGABUSEdotGOV | MAY 14, 2014

The abuse of and addiction to opioids such as heroin, morphine, and prescription pain relievers is a serious global problem that affects the health, social, and economic welfare of all societies.

It is estimated that between 26.4 million and 36 million people abuse opioids worldwide, with an estimated 2.1 million people in the United States suffering from substance use disorders related to prescription opioid pain relievers in 2012 and an estimated 467,000 addicted to heroin.

The consequences of this abuse have been devastating and are on the rise. For example, the number of unintentional overdose deaths from prescription pain relievers has soared in the United States, more than quadrupling since 1999.

There is also growing evidence to suggest a relationship between increased non-medical use of opioid analgesics and heroin abuse in the United States.

“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”

Small But Growing Number of Doctors Face Criminal Charges Over Prescription Drugs | DRUGFREEdotORG | SEP 15, 2011

Doctors must lead us out of our opioid abuse epidemic | CNN | JUN 2, 2016

We’ve got the best pharmaceutical companies, folks | BAYER | WIKIPEDIA

Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.

Instead, the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself.

The head of Bayer’s research department reputedly coined the drug’s new name, “heroin,” based on the German heroisch, which means “heroic, strong” (from the ancient Greek word “heros, ήρως”).

Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but their scientists discovered ways to make it, and Bayer led commercialization of heroin.

Yes, Bayer Promoted Heroin for Children — Here Are The Ads That Prove It | BUSINESS INSIDER | NOV 17, 2011

It’s not news that Bayer, the venerable German drug company, made its first fortunes in the late 1890s when it commercialized both aspirin and heroin as cough, cold and pain remedies.

Many people have seen the sepia images of vintage Bayer’s “Heroin” brand medicine bottles.

But it’s less widely known that Bayer promoted heroin for use in children suffering from coughs, colds and “irritation” as late as 1912, according to an anti-Bayer watchdog group.



“Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.”


“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”

Returning to Malaria.

Unethical Clinical Trials Still Being Conducted in Developing Countries | HUFFINGTON POST | OCT 3, 2014

In 1997, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group brought widespread international attention to unethical clinical trials.

The trials were testing new methods for preventing the spread of HIV infection from pregnant women to their babies before or after giving birth in developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.

In each of these trials, most of which were funded by the U.S. government, some women were randomly assigned to receive placebos or other treatments known to be ineffective, rather than a drug proven effective in preventing the spread of HIV infection from mother to baby.

The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review | WORKING PAPERS – HARVARD | MAR 1999

In 1990, the WHO estimated global malaria incidence at about 120 million clinical cases annually.

In 1994, they estimated 300-500 million cases annually.

The life-cycle of vector-borne diseases like malaria is complex relative to that of many directly-transmitted human diseases (including bacterial or viral diseases like bacterial meningitis or HIV).

Figure 1 shows an overlay of data from World Health Organization maps of malaria risk in 1946, 1966, and 1994, illustrating the extent of this localization to the tropics. Of about 120 countries, islands, or colonies where malaria was endemic in 1945, the disease has disappeared from 15 European countries, about seven islands or archipelagoes, the United States, Israel, and Chile.


As table 1 shows, the current (1999) situation is not uniform.

For example, only 9% of Malaysia’s population lives in regions where malaria is transmitted, and in 1994 59,000 cases of malaria were diagnosed in health clinics serving a total population of 20 million people. In contrast, the whole of Tanzania’s population of 29 million remains at risk of contracting the disease, with more than 8 million diagnosed in health clinics in 1994.

About 40% of the world’s population remains at risk for infection, of whom 19% live in Africa; in addition, about 90% of clinical malaria cases occur in sub-saharan Africa.



Africa is the world region that is most affected by malaria: In 2015, the African continent held 9 out of 10 malaria victims

Conducting clinical trials in emerging markets of sub-Saharan Africa: review of guidelines and resources for foreign sponsors | DOVE PRESS | OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC & MEDICAL RESEARCH | JAN 7, 2015

Clinical trials provide a foundation for new drug development processes, as well as for product license extensions for existing therapies.

The reduction in the amount of time and cost to conduct a clinical trial becomes important, as competition to bring a new drug to the market is increasing, and so is the search for new markets.

Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia offer a diverse patient population, as well as a comparatively research-friendly and ambitious government to develop these countries as pharmaceutical and health sectors of excellence.

All these countries have their own guidelines to conduct clinical trials that feature some similarities and some subtle differences.

Over the last decade, the guidelines have been evolving to provide a good ground to foreign sponsor, which carry out clinical trials while keeping the interest of patients as a priority.

Oh, really?

Anger at deadly Nigerian drug trials | BBC NEWS | JUN 20, 2007

In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria.

Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to administer an experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, to approximately 200 children.

Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities.

Tenofovir trials on HIV transmission | THE LANCET | SOMO pg 4 | 2004–2005

Drugs | lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir) + tenofovir (Viread) or nevirapine (Viramune) or abacavir (Ziagen) (DART trial)
Treatment | Anti-retroviral therapy (ART)
Sponsors | UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Rockefeller Foundation, DfID (Uganda), GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Boehringer-Ingelheim
Period | 2003 – 2006 (DART trial
Location | Uganda, Zimbabwe, Côte d’Ivoire

ART treatment interruption trials (DART TRIALS) | SOMO pg 3 | 2003-2006

Drugs | Tenofovir (Viread)
Treatment | Prevention of HIV transmission
Sponsors | Gilead, US CDC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Research organization | Family Health International (FHI) in Africa, US NIH in Cambodia
Period | 2004 – 2005
Location | Cameroon, Thailand, Nigeria

Nevirapine PMTCT trials in Uganda | SOMO pg 6

Drug | nevirapine (Viramune)
Treatment | HIV prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)
Sponsors | Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), US National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Period | 1997 – 2003
Location | Uganda

Ragaglitazar trials in India and other countries | SOMO pg 12

Drugs | ragaglitazar
Treatment | Diabetes treatment
Sponsors | Novo Nordisk
Period | 2002
Location | 32 countries, including India

’Many drugs for U.S. kids tested in poor countries’ | REUTERS | AUG 23, 2010

A law intended to speed up development of new drugs for U.S. kids has ended up financing clinical trials in poor countries, where the medicines might never become available.”The trend that we describe brings up some scientific and ethical problems,” said Dr. Sara K. Pasquali, a pediatrician at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, whose findings appear in the journal Pediatrics.According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.”Recruiting people is easy, getting informed consent is easy, getting approval is easy, paying the patients and paying the doctors is easy,” Ghayur said. “The physicians and investigators have absolutely no idea about the seriousness of the situation.”


1998 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $120,000
1999 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $140,000
2000 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2001 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $20,000
2002 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2003 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $330,000
2004 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2005 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2006 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000

According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.

Well, at least he’s honest.

 Trials on foster care children in New York | SOMO pg 14
Drugs | Various ARV drug combinations and vaccines: didanosine, zidovudine, nevirapine, ritonavir, valacyclovir, Live-Attenuated Varicella Vaccine (Varivax) Seven Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Recombinant Interleukin-2 (rIL-2) Recombinant Envelope Proteins of HIV-1 gp160 and gp120
Treatment | ARV therapy, vaccination against infectious diseases
Sponsors | US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Genentech, MicroGeneSystems, Lederle-Praxis Biologicals
Period | 1997 – 2002
Location | New York, US

Guinea Pig Kids | BBC | NOV 29, 2004

HIV positive children – some only a few months old – are enrolled in toxic experiments without the consent of guardians or relatives.The city’s Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) does not even require a court order to place HIV kids with foster parents or in children’s homes, where they can continue to give them experimental drugs.

‘New York’s HIV experiment’ | BBC | NOV 30, 2004

Jacklyn Hoerger’s job was to treat children with HIV at a New York children’s home.But nobody had told her that the drugs she was administering were experimental and highly toxic.

SFBC Miami test centre | SOMO pg 7

Drugs | Various
Sponsors | Pfizer, Merck & Co, Johnson & Johnson, Schering-Plough, Theravance, Purdue Pharma, AstraZeneca, and others
Research organization | SFBC
Period | 2000 – 2005
Location | Miami, USA

Side Effects May Include Lawsuits | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 2, 2010

Every major company selling the antipsychotics — Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — has either settled recent government cases, under the False Claims Act, for hundreds of millions of dollars or is currently under investigation for possible health care fraud.


2012 | Bristol-Myers Squibb | $100,000

1999 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2000 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2004 | Pfizer Inc | $100,000
2005 | Pfizer Inc | $180,000
2006 | Pfizer Inc | $240,000
2007 | Pfizer Inc | $40,000
2011 | Johnson & Johnson | $100,000
2012 | Johnson & Johnson | $160,000
2013 | Johnson & Johnson | $200,000
2014 | Johnson & Johnson | $50,000


Johnson & Johnson | $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca | PLC $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP | $50,001 – $100,000

Malaria drug causes brain damage that mimics PTSD: case study | MILITARY TIMES | AUG 11, 2016

The case of a service member diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder but found instead to have brain damage caused by a malaria drug raises questions about the origin of similar symptoms in other post-9/11 veterans.

According to the case study published online in Drug Safety Case Reports in June, a U.S. military member sought treatment at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, for uncontrolled anger, insomnia, nightmares and memory loss.

The fix is in

Leaked Podesta email discussing price fixing AIDS drugs for their benefit. | WIKILEAKS | DEC 12, 2011

“We were taken by surprise by President Clinton’s comments on world AIDS day and wish that someone had consulted with us before he made these comments.” …

…” We have always told the drug companies that we would not pressure them and create a slippery slope where prices they negotiate with us for poor countries would inevitably lead to similar prices in rich countries.” …

… “We would have to initiate discussions with multiple state health officials as well as HHS in addition to talking with the drug companies.” …

… “Whatever we decide, we need to make a decision quickly and President Clinton and CHAI need to be in synch. I do not think it is a good idea for President Clinton to be taking one position and CHAI another.” …

Is the Clinton Foundation Responsible for the High Price of AIDS Drugs in the US? | HUFFINGTON POST | DEC 30, 2016

“If you really had to think long and hard about it, the ultimate result of years of negotiations by the Clinton Foundation was that the price of AIDS drugs ended up being high in the US.”

“Furthermore, African governments were paranoid that drug companies were a part of a massive conspiracy suppressing their countries.”

Clinton Foundation AIDS Program Distributed ‘Watered-Down’ Drugs to Third World Countries | DAILY CALLER | SEP 19, 2016

Former President Bill Clinton and his Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) distributed “watered-down” HIV/AIDs drugs to patients in sub-Saharan Africa, and “likely increased” the risks of morbidity and mortality.

The CHAI program to help AIDS victims is considered one of the Clinton Foundation’s most important contributions and is probably its best known initiative.

Ranbaxy ultimately pleaded guilty in 2013 to seven criminal counts with intent to defraud and the introduction of adulterated drugs into interstate commerce.

The Department of Justice further levied a $500 million fine and forfeiture on the company.

Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. donated $100,001 – $250,000 to the Clinton Foundation.

Clinton Foundation Advised World Bank on Contracts That Netted Donors Millions | FREE BEACON | AUG 16, 2016

Two of every three dollars spent acquiring anti-tuberculosis drugs through the program, which is administered by the World Bank, have gone to two companies—Swiss health care giant Novartis and Indian drug company Lupin Ltd.—that together have donated up to $130,000 to the Clinton Foundation.

The project, dubbed the Second National Tuberculosis Control Project (SNTCP), is financed by the World Bank’s International Development Association, which receives the bulk of its funding from the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany.

Clinton has pointed to her foundation’s work in promoting access to pharmaceuticals in the developing world as an example of its laudatory humanitarian mission.

However, critics have noted how beneficiaries of other foundation-backed pharmaceutical access programs have made large financial contributions to the group. Companies that received funds from the foundation to provide low-cost HIV drugs, for instance, were donors to the foundation.


The Clinton Foundation Likely Facilitated The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa Through Its Health Access Initiative.

The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa May Have Increased Patient Mortality Rates.

Watered Down HIV/AIDS ARVs Were Purchased With Taxpayer Money Through PEPFAR As A Result of Price Agreements, Some of Which Were Likely Negotiated By The Clinton Foundation.

President Clinton Was Personally Enriched With Million Dollar Consulting Contracts By A Friend of Convicted Felon, and Ranbaxy advocate, Rajat Gupta From 2002-2008.

Lobbyists for Clinton’s ‘Enemies’ Are Bankrolling Her Campaign | FREE BEACON | OCT 14, 2015

Asked to name the enemies that she is most proud of during Tuesday’s Democratic presidential debate, Hillary Clinton cited industries represented by lobbyists who are among her top campaign fundraisers.

In addition to Iran and the Republican Party, Clinton said she was proud to count “the health insurance companies” and “the drug companies” as her enemies.

Those industries’ lobbyists do not appear to share that enmity. By mid-July, seven of them had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for her presidential campaign, according to campaign finance records.

They include Heather and Tony Podesta, the recently divorced Democratic power brokers. Heather Podesta represents health insurer Cigna, while Tony lobbies on behalf of pharmaceutical firms Amgen and EMD Serono, a division of drug giant Merck.

The Podestas have also given as much as $150,000 to the Clinton Foundation, according to that group’s list of donors.

Insurers Humana and Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina and drug company Pfizer have donated between $1 million and $5 million. Merck has given $250,000 to $500,000; AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson have donated $100,000 to $250,000.

One of the speakers at this year’s annual Clinton Global Initiative summit was Merck chairman and chief executive Kenneth Frazier, a PhRMA board member. Last year, CGI hosted the president of health care consulting firm Rabin Martin, which represents a number of drug companies. The year before, it announced financial commitments from Pfizer, one of multiple such charitable commitments that drug company has made through the Clinton Foundation.

Clinton Foundation Briefing: Africa 2012 | WIKILEAKS (pg. 9 of attachment)

“CLINTON HEALTH ACCESS INITIATIVE (CHAI) first began working in South Africa in 2003, when the government asked for assistance to develop a plan to significantly scale up HIV services and access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 2009, CHAI was invited back to partner with the South African Government to help improve the response to HIV and TB, which laid the foundation for the most aggressive expansion of HIV testing and treatment ever attempted in the world. In addition to the CHAI HIV/AIDS work, CHAI also supports the National Department of Health (NDOH) with efforts to eliminate malaria.”

“CHAI worked with the government to develop implementation plans for testing and treatment and to select facilities for ART scale-up. From April 2010 to March 2012, the number of facilities providing ART increased from 495 to over 3000, and in the last year close to 430,000 people started treatment. Since April 2010, nearly 20 million HIV tests were conducted in South Africa.”

Microsoft Joins Child Safety Advocates, Law Enforcement for Fourth Global Law Enforcement Training in Paarl, South Africa | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | SEP 6, 2004

PAARL, SOUTH AFRICA/PRNewswire-FirstCall/ – To address the growing problem of children’s safety on the Internet around the world, the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, Interpol and Microsoft Corp. (Nasdaq: MSFT) continue their series of international training programs for law enforcement personnel who investigate computer-facilitated crimes against children this week in Paarl, Western Cape, South Africa.

The training conference, which begins Sept. 6 and runs through Sept. 9, brings together 73 worldwide law enforcement representatives from 12 countries for four days of extensive training on investigating online child predators, collecting evidence and computer forensic information, and seeking private industry assistance in child exploitation investigations. Representatives from Botswana, France, Ghana, Italy, Lesotho, Qatar, South Africa, Spain, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe are meeting in Paarl this week

CHAI UPDATE – February 2013 | WIKILEAKS (attachment)

International Centre Training Initiative Breaks Ground In The Middle East | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | JUN 6, 2005

AMMAN, JORDAN – As the World Wide Web drapes itself across the globe, sexual predators are finding new ways to weave themselves into our homes and our children’s lives. The growing problem of online child sexual exploitation, and the demand for a law-enforcement response, has led the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (International Centre), in partnership with Microsoft and Interpol, to host a series of international training programs for law-enforcement personnel who investigate these crimes. The series continues this month in Amman, Jordan. There are 98 participating law-enforcement officers from six different countries, including Jordan, China, Italy, Denmark, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia.

Qatar Investment Authority

The Qatar Investment Authority (Arabic: جهاز قطر للإستثمار) (QIA) is Qatar‘s state-owned holding company that can be characterized as a National Wealth Fund. It specializes in domestic and foreign investment. The QIA was founded by the State of Qatar in 2005 to strengthen the country’s economy by diversifying into new asset classes.


Qatar Investment Authority owns (100%) Qatar Holding LLC, and is associated with Qatar National Bank (50%).

QIA is affiliated with Qatar Islamic Bank (16.67%) and with Ubac Curaçao NV (1.35%).


In January 2013, one writer pegged the QIA investment in Britain at 30 billion euros, France 10 billion euros and Germany 5 billion euros,[5] while another reported that the total assets under management in June 2013 was on the order of $100 billion.[12] Qatar Holding’s stake in Barclays rose to 12.7% following Barclays’ capital raising in October 2008.[13] Qatar Investment Authority holds a small stake in Fisker Automotive. It also holds about 17% stake in the Volkswagen Group, Porsche, Hochtief,[14] as well as investments in Sainsbury’s.[15] The French government has made of Qatar a strategic partner, and the list of partnerships between the two states includes Lagardère (12%) Total (4%), EADS (6%), Technip, Air Liquide, Vinci SA (5%), GDF Suez, Veolia (5%), Vivendi, Royal Monceau, France Telecom and Areva.[5][14][16] In February 2009, France accorded special beyond-OECD investment privileges to Qatar and its State-Owned Enterprises; one example is capital gains exemptions in France.[16] The QIA is also reported to hold part of Xstrata (GLENCOR).

Industry-sponsored clinical drug trials in Egypt | SOMO | JUN 21, 2016

The past 20 years have seen a considerable shift in the location of clinical drug trials sponsored by transnational pharmaceutical companies (TNCs), with a significant ex-pansion of such tests being conducted in low- and middle-income settings. This increased offshoring may result in serious ethical violations as highlighted by several recent field investigations and media reports.

An attractive research infrastructure, a fast-growing and largely treatment-naïve population, and lower costs make Egypt among the most popular places in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region for offshoring medicine testing. Egypt is second only to South Africa on the African continent in terms of the number of TNC-sponsored clinical trials it hosts.

Of the 57 international drug trials that were active in Egypt in February 2016, over half were cancer trials. The two Swiss giants Novartis and Roche are responsible for almost 50 per cent of the international drug trials taking place in the country. The Arab spring events of early 2011 and the subsequent political unrest had no chilling effect on the number of active international drug trials – on the contrary.

Egypt has the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis C in the world, and was the frst low- or middle-income country in 2014 to negotiate preferential pricing for the new direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment sofosbuvir (Sovaldi®) with manufacturer Gilead.

Raymond Schinazi fled Nasser’s Egypt to become pioneer in antivirals | FINANCIAL TIMES | JUL 27, 2014

He personally had a hand in discovering and developing several key treatments for HIV and hepatitis C. These include Gilead’s Sovaldi, which has had the best-selling debut in pharmaceutical history: sales hit $5.8bn in the first half of 2014.

The Drug That is Bankrupting America | HUFFINGTON POST | FEB 2, 2015

Former VA Scientist Responds to Lawmaker’s Suspicions over Drug Sale | MILITARYdotCOM

The drug shown to cure hepatitis C is sold by Gilead Sciences of California under the brand name Sovaldi, but it was developed at Pharmasset, a private lab owned by Dr. Raymond Schinazi while he worked for the VA Medical Center in Atlanta and Emory University.

Today, skeptical lawmakers question whether Schinazi got rich using VA resources and funding. He sold Pharmasset, and with it the drug, to Gilead in 2011 for $11 billion.

Hepatitis C Drug Maker is Price Gouging, republican lawmaker says | MILITARY TIMES | JAN 27, 2016

The chairman of the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee has accused the makers of hepatitis C drug sofosbuvir of opportunism and price-gouging for charging the U.S. government up to $68,000 for a treatment regimen that costs about $1,400 to manufacture.

Dr. Raymond F. Schinazi

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Board of Advisors
Emory University School of Medicine | Professor of Pediatrics
RFS Pharma LLC | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences in 2003)
Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Pharmasset (VRUS) | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences for $11B IN 2012)
Foundation for AIDS Reserach | Governing Trustee

The pharmaceutical lobbying industry is worth over double the oil and gas sector | OPEN SECRETS

In the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic shift in clinical trial practices with companies now primarily outsourcing pipeline testing to third world countries. | SOMO

During this time, the Clinton Foundation and its partners began constructing a vast network of infrastructure throughout the Third World. Clinton’s trip to Africa in 1998 was the longest trip in history by a US President | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 47421 | ATTACHMENT

They’ve been constructing infrastructure like mad- transportation infrastructure including roads, bridges, seaports, airports, power generation, food production, information (news), telecommunications, intelligence (and intelligence sharing) etc. | UNOHRLLS

Haitian Farmers Reject Monsanto Donation | FOOD SAFETY NEWS | JUN 7, 2010

Why Seven African Nations Joined Anti-Monsanto Protests Last Weekend | THINKPROGRESS | OCT 17, 2013

 Lobbyists for Monsanto, ExxonMobil Raise Money for Hillary Clinton | BLOOMBERG | JUL 17, 2015

 Twelve reasons for Africa to reject GM crops | GRAINdotORG | JUL 25, 2004


1. (U) This is an action request. See paragraph 12. SUMMARY

2. (SBU) Spain’s MON810 corn crop is under threat from an emerging well-coordinated campaign to ban cultivation of genetically engineered seed varieties in Europe, according to industry sources. The campaign has gained strength and speed in recent months with the April 14 German ban on MON810 cultivation – which followed an EU vote supporting maintenance of a ban in Austria and Hungary. Legislation which threatens MON810 cultivation has also been introduced recently in both the Basque and Catalonian Regional Parliaments.

3. (SBU) In response to invocation of a safeguard and emergency measure to suspend MON810 cultivation in France, the European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) Scientific Opinion of October 29, 2008 found no new scientific evidence of risk related to MON810 plantings. The EFSA report, however, is being questioned. Monsanto maintains that anti-MON810 momentum was gained by a de facto agreement between the Government of France and Greenpeace/Friends of the Earth whereby the GOF would support the anti-GMO movement and environmental activists would turn a blind eye to Sarkozy’s nuclear energy initiatives. A senior Spanish agriculture official has expressed concern that Spain is under increasing pressure within the EU. Post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position, as well as support for a non-USG science fellow to interact with Spanish interlocutors. End Summary.

4. (SBU) Spain was the first EU country to grow genetically modified (GM) corn and now cultivates nearly 75 percent of the EU’s MON810 corn crop – nearly 200,000 acres. During a May 13 meeting with Monsanto’s Director for Biotechnology for Spain and Portugal, Embassy officials were told that Spain is increasingly becoming a target of anti-biotechnology forces within Europe and that Spain’s cultivation of MON810 corn was under serious threat. The sentiment echoed by supporters of agricultural biotechnology regarding a ban on MON810 cultivation in Spain is that “If Spain falls, the rest of Europe will follow.”


12. (SBU) ACTION REQUESTED: In response to recent urgent requests by MARM State Secretary Josep Puxeu and Monsanto, post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position through high-level USG intervention in support of the EFSA findings. Post also requests USG support for a non-USG science fellow to meet with influential Spanish interlocutors on this issue and assistance with developing an agricultural biotechnology action plan for Spain. Post would also welcome any comments from other posts concerning the anti-GMO campaign. DUNCAN


Animal-to-human organ transplants, known as xenotransplantation, might sound like extraordinary stuff, but Rothblatt has the track record for innovation, the intellectual curiosity, and the deep pockets needed to do pioneering research in this area.

Enter Martine Rothblatt. When she was a he, she wrote her thesis about the intersection of ethics, economics, and- xenotransplantation.

She is the Founder, CEO & Chairman of United Therapeutics | SYNTHETIC GENOMICS

Polymath Martine Rothblatt turns to transplants | FORTUNE

United Therapeutics has teamed up with Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics, a biotech company based in La Jolla, Calif., to develop pigs with genetically modified organs — for transplantation into humans.

Modified pigs to grow humanized lungs | SAN DIEGO TRIBUNE

In a move filled with the promise of scientific innovation but also the prospect of controversy, a La Jolla company is set to announce Tuesday that it will join forces with a biotech firm to create pigs with lungs and other organs that are compatible for transplantation into humans.

The local company is Synthetic Genomics, led by J. Craig Venter, whose world-famous feats include sequencing the human genome. Its partner in the new venture will be Lung Biotechnology — a subsidiary of United Therapeutics, which has a market value of $5.1 billion.

Synthetic Genomics will get a $50 million investment under the research and development agreement, along with milestone payments and royalties from any sales, according to the companies.

Synthetic Genomics plans to use its genomic modification tools to produce pig cells compatible with human immune systems, said Venter, its chairman and CEO.

United Therapeutics — of Silver Spring, Md. — intends to use those cells to make embryos that would be grown into pigs with transplantable organs.


2008 | Synthetic Genomics | $200,000
2009 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2010 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2011 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2012 | Synthetic Genomics | $170,000
2013 | Synthetic Genomics | $100,000
2014 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2015 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2016 | Synthetic Genomics | $90,000

Sounds like a great industry for human testing, which really would be nothing new | WIKIPEDIA PAGE

Getting back to the Clintons.

Clinton Health Access Initiative opened for business in South Africa in 2003. | WIKILEAKS

They brokered the distribution of vital pharmaceutical resources and established “public-private” partnerships in the healthcare industry to formulate public policy, implement planning and monitor the implementation of the programs. The main focuses were HIV/AIDS & Malaria.

South Africa has a public health care system and a private system. The public system, as expected, is terrible. The only people with access to the private sector are- you guessed it, the wealthy.

South Africa is being exploited by the international drug companies to boost patient numbers and that the trials provide no long-term benefit for either the patients or local research staff | The Clinical Trials Industry in South Africa: Ethics, Rules and Realities

Given the current state of South Africa’s struggling public health sector, it is clear that in many cases, people are not in a position to access or afford the medicines or specialist treatment they may need. Therefore the opportunity to participate in clinical trials and receive treatment for free is a tempting proposition for many | Clinical Trials in SA

Andre Pienaar

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Good Governance Group (G3) | Founder
C5 Capital (partnered with Amazon Web Services) | Founder
Kroll Inc | Manager, Africa & Natural Resources Division
BAE Systems | Contractor for BAE through C5 Capital
United States Institute of Peace | International Advisory Council

Andre is a private investor. He serves as the Executive Chairman of C5 Partners, a specialist technology investment company. He also serves as the Deputy Chairman of the Advisory Council of Cranemere Inc, a permanent capital industrial investment company.

He founded and served as the Group CEO of the Good Governance Group (G3) (2004-2014), a consulting firm that advises global companies and international law firms on foreign direct investment, compliance and cybersecurity.

He serves as a trustee of the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation, a charity focused on wildlife conservation. Andre is also a Council Member of the African Union Foundation, a charitable organisation emerging from the African Union which works to mobilise domestic resources for Africa’s development. Andre is Founder and Chairman of the Leadership Technology Centre, a charitable organisation which aims to facilitate the provision of technologies and services to community and charity leaders.

Andre is an Advocate of the Supreme Court of South Africa.

Kenya Joins Nations Pursuing Funds Stolen by Ex-Leaders | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 21, 2003
Inside the corporate intelligence company which bankrolled Liam Fox | THE TELEGRAPH

A South African intelligence expert made payments of as much as £60,000 through his security company for an unregistered charity linked to Dr Liam Fox.

‘Bad to the bone: A medical horror story’ | FORTUNE | SEP 18, 2012

When medical device company Synthes decided to illegally test a bone cement on people, the results were disastrous. A disturbing tale of corporate crime and punishment.

Synthes not only disregarded multiple warnings that it was flouting the rules, but also brushed off scientists’ cautions that the cement could cause fatal blood clots.

Liberal groups refuse to talk about links to funder with tainted history of illegal human experiments | WASHINGTON EXAMINER | JUL 29, 2014

Swiss billionaire Hansjorg Wyss, whose former company conducted illegal human experiments where three elderly patients died.

The Examiner reported July 23 that John Podesta received $87,000 as a paid consultant to a Wyss-controlled foundation before joining President Obama’s inner circle of White House advisers.

Podesta has also benefited from the more than $4 million Wyss has given to the Center for American Progress since 2008.

Podesta was the founding president of CAP and remains as chairman of its board of directors, which also includes Wyss, former Secretary of State Madeline Albright; former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D; and former Obama White House energy czar Carol Browner.

The loyalty appears to be reciprocated, as liberal groups continue to remain silent about their acceptance of millions of dollars in donations from the reclusive Swiss billionaire even as CEO Wyss conducted abhorrent human experiments.

Wyss, who was Synthes CEO and majority stockholder at the time of the indictment, sold Synthes to Johnson & Johnson in 2012 for $21.3 billion.

The Wyss Foundation donated $1,000,001 – $5,000,000 to the Clinton Foundation

Stryker Corporation | CORRECT THE RECORD

Since early 2007, the company has received three Warning Letters from the Food & Drug Administration citing issues in compliancy.

The first of these, a seven-page correspondence, named various issues at an Irish manufacturing facility, such as untimely fix of failures and procedural noncompliance in the testing of failed or otherwise problem-prone devices.

The second, sent November 2007, cites issues at the firm’s Mahwah, New Jersey, facility, including poor fixation of hip implant components, in some instances requiring mitigation by revision surgeries; exceeded microbial level violations in the cleaning and final packaging areas of the sterile implants; and failure to institute measures in prevention of recurrence of these and other problems.

The final warning letter, sent April 2008, cites issues at the firm’s Hopkinton, MA biotechnology facility. Again, issues relate to quality and noncompliance including falsification of documents relevant to the selling of products to hospitals which are to be sold under a limited, government-mandated basis. Stryker maintains that employees involved in the falsification of documents have since been terminated.






One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers’ claims of voting irregularities.

The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar’s two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.


Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya).

Bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world’s second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world’s second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest.

 Trafficking in Persons:

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.

The exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem.

Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats.

Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US.

Internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs.

Trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked.

Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.

Granted exemption from downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law;

Authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)


Lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected


For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests.

Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years.

However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population.

Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities.


Tanzania is one of the world’s poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism.

Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession.

Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a “market economy”, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as:


The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force.

Agriculture accounts for 7% of government expenditures.

All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry’s total assets.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania’s aging infrastructure, including rail and port, that provide important trade links for inland countries.

In 2013, Tanzania completed the world’s largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million, and, in December 2014, the Millennium Challenge Corporation selected Tanzania for a second Compact.

In late 2014, a highly publicized scandal in the energy sector involving senior Tanzanian officials resulted in international donors freezing nearly $500 million in direct budget support to the government.

German government funding | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 53308 | MAR 3, 2012


“As you may know, the German Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development, Dr. Dirk Niebel, sent a letter to WJC on Feb 17, suggesting a meeting to discuss partnership. [This is the arm of the German government that funds development projects overseas.]”

“Their priorities are education, entrepreneurship, and clean energy, and their priority regions are Africa and Asia. We honed in on three areas of overlapping interest: (1) CDI, (2) CCI in cities, and (3) islands’ adaptation to climate change.”

“Besides funding for CDI, we also discussed them sharing with us the lessons they have learned on value-add agri-businesses elsewhere in Africa.”

Howard Buffet | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 52883 | MAR 16, 2012

To: blindsey@clintonfoundation.org, lgraham@clintonfoundation.org, doug@presidentclinton.com, justin@presidentclinton.com, john.podesta@gmail.com CC: bob.harrison@clintonglobalinitiative.org, ed.hughes@clintonglobalinitiative.org, wmorris@clintonfoundation.org, dcheng@clintonfoundation.org Date: 2012-03-16 13:34 Subject: Howard Buffett

Had a good call today with Howard Buffett. Like WJC, he talked about strengthening agriculture (sustainably) in developing countries in Africa, Latin/Central America, and beyond; and also in reconfiguring US food aid to enable more local purchasing of food aid rather than shipping US farm produce overseas. [Besides running his farm, he runs farms in South Africa and Central America and is currently a UN WFP Ambassador and advocate for their Purchase for Progress initiative.] He was surprised to learn there are so many shared interests. We discussed a few areas of possible future collaboration, all of which effectively are either “talking” or “doing,” on which I’d welcome your feedback:


COUNTRY VISIT. We discussed WJC’s agriculture work in Rwanda/Malawi/Peru/Colombia and he is intrigued. He said he’s visiting South Africa (where he runs a 9,000 acre farm) in August and would like to visit Malawi/Rwanda to see CF projects. We can help facilitate his visit. I didn’t mention WJC’s Africa trip but should we consider a joint-visit whenever WJC goes? [He liked the Neno wheat example of working ourselves out of a job.]

– CDI. Funding for scaling-up commercial farms in Malawi/Tanzania. I explained our interest in growing the program, he said he’d like to work together given a lot of shared interests, and that he’ll be able to make a decision after seeing our work first-hand. Whenever he visits Malawi, we should be prepared with a specific ask.

CARLOS SLIM. He said he has been in discussions with Marco about doing joint agriculture work in Mexico and he asked if we’d be open to discussing it and to WJC being involved as the convener. I said we work with Slim as well and that we’d be happy to discuss it together.


He is writing a book and would like to profile WJC’s agriculture work (we discussed Malawi). I said we’d be happy to discuss it further and provide him with more information about the projects. – CGI. He’s going to try to come to CGI in September. He said it’s right around corn harvest so he doesn’t like being away from his farm but he will try to come for one day.

He asked if there any appetite to do joint advocacy on agriculture issues – most notably US food aid. I tried to bring it back to CGI as an opportunity for him to share his message there under the umbrella of CGI. It would be good to give him information on any agriculture-related programming or action networks being contemplated for September, for him to weigh-in on.

Hope this helps, and I’d welcome your feedback. Thanks, Ami

New generation of African leaders

The term “new generation” or “new breed” of African leaders was a buzzword widely used in the mid-late 1990s to express optimism in a new generation of African leadership. It has since fallen out of favor, along with several of the leaders the term was used for.

When US president Bill Clinton made his African journey in March 1998, he helped popularize this notion when he said he placed hope in a new generation of African leaders devoted to democracy and economic reforms. Although Clinton did not identify the African leaders by name, it is generally assumed that he was referring to, among others, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia and Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea.