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Rwanda genocide: 100 days of slaughter | BBC NEWS | APR 7, 2014

In just 100 days in 1994, some 800,000 people were slaughtered in Rwanda by ethnic Hutu extremists. They were targeting members of the minority Tutsi community, as well as their political opponents, irrespective of their ethnic origin.

Why did the Hutu militias want to kill the Tutsis?

About 85% of Rwandans are Hutus but the Tutsi minority has long dominated the country. In 1959, the Hutus overthrew the Tutsi monarchy and tens of thousands of Tutsis fled to neighbouring countries, including Uganda. A group of Tutsi exiles formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which invaded Rwanda in 1990 and fighting continued until a 1993 peace deal was agreed.

On the night of 6 April 1994 a plane carrying then President Juvenal Habyarimana, and his counterpart Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi – both Hutus – was shot down, killing everyone on board. Hutu extremists blamed the RPF and immediately started a well-organised campaign of slaughter. The RPF said the plane had been shot down by Hutus to provide an excuse for the genocide.



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Rwanda’s mystery that won’t go away | BBC NEWS | NOV 29, 2006

The question of who shot down the plane carrying the former president of Rwanda in April 1994 could turn out to be one of the great mysteries of the late 20th Century.

The act served as a catalyst for the genocide of some 800,000 (others say as high as one million) people in just 100 days. A French investigative judge, Jean Louis Bruguiere, has accused the ethnic Tutsi rebel leader at the time, Paul Kagame, of having been responsible. Mr Kagame, now Rwanda’s president, was furious and broke off diplomatic relations with France. Judge Bruguiere mounted the inquiry in France because the families of the French aircrew, also killed when the plane went down, laid a judicial complaint.

Killings

When the Rwandan president’s Mystere Falcon executive jet was blown out of the skies over Kigali airport at about 2000 local time on 6 April 1994, it was the beginning of a bloody nightmare for Rwanda. The ethnic Hutu president, his aides and his French air crew were all killed. Within minutes, on the ground, extremist Hutu army officers and their militias began taking revenge on the minority Tutsis and other government opponents.

The Rwandan genocide had begun. The extremist Hutus blamed Tutsi rebels, led by Paul Kagame, and Belgian mercenaries, for downing the plane. But others, including senior United Nations officials present on the ground suspected that Hutus, or mercenaries working for them , may have carried out the attack in order to stop the late president signing a compromise peace deal with the Tutsi rebels. France backed the Hutu government at the time



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CLINTON IN AFRICA: THE BLOOD BATH; Critics Say U.S. Ignored C.I.A. Warnings of Genocide in Rwanda | NEW YORK TIMES | MAR 26, 1998

When President Clinton confessed today that ”people like me” failed to see the storm of mass killings that swept Rwanda in 1994, he acknowledged a bitter truth for the first time.

The Clinton Administration ignored powerful warnings of impending genocide, including a Central Intelligence Agency study saying half a million people could die if Rwanda exploded, former Administration officials and human rights experts said today.

”Never again must we be shy in the face of the evidence,” Mr. Clinton said.

But even when it was clear that hundreds of thousands of Rwandan civilians were in mortal danger, the United States stopped the United Nations from taking action that might have saved those lives, the critics of the Administration’s policy said.

”By definition, when a human catastrophe like that takes place, the whole international community, including the United States as a leader in it, has failed,” Anthony Lake, the national security adviser to President Clinton at the time, said today.

A 2,500-member United Nations force sought authorization under the United Nations charter to stop the killing. The United Nations commander in Rwanda at the time, Canadian Maj. Gen. Romeo Dallaire, said last month that if he had had the mandate, the massacres would have ceased.



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Bystanders to Genocide | THE ATLANTIC | SEP 01, 2001 

In the course of a hundred days in 1994 the Hutu government of Rwanda and its extremist allies very nearly succeeded in exterminating the country’s Tutsi minority. Using firearms, machetes, and a variety of garden implements, Hutu militiamen, soldiers, and ordinary citizens murdered some 800,000 Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu. It was the fastest, most efficient killing spree of the twentieth century.



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US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide | THE GUARDIAN | MAR 31, 2004 

President Bill Clinton’s administration knew Rwanda was being engulfed by genocide in April 1994 but buried the information to justify its inaction, according to classified documents made available for the first time. Senior officials privately used the word genocide within 16 days of the start of the killings, but chose not to do so publicly because the president had already decided not to intervene. Intelligence reports obtained using the US Freedom of Information Act show the cabinet and almost certainly the president had been told of a planned “final solution to eliminate all Tutsis” before the slaughter reached its peak.

It took Hutu death squads three months from April 6 to murder an estimated 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus and at each stage accurate, detailed reports were reaching Washington’s top policymakers.

The documents undermine claims by Mr Clinton and his senior officials that they did not fully appreciate the scale and speed of the killings. “It’s powerful proof that they knew,” said Alison des Forges, a Human Rights Watch researcher and authority on the genocide. The National Security Archive, an independent non-governmental research institute based in Washington DC, went to court to obtain the material.

It discovered that the CIA’s national intelligence daily, a secret briefing circulated to Mr Clinton, the then vice-president, Al Gore, and hundreds of senior officials, included almost daily reports on Rwanda. One, dated April 23, said rebels would continue fighting to “stop the genocide, which … is spreading south”.



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The Great Rwanda “Genocide Coverup” | GLOBAL RESEARCH | FEB 20, 2008 

As George Bush begins his much bally-hooed African safari, he has already begun to heap praise on Rwandan President Kagame as a “model for Africa .” But, recently issued French and Spanish international “war-crimes” warrants and new evidence at the UN Rwanda Tribunal have exposed Kagame as the war-criminal who actually touched-off the 1994 “Rwanda Genocide” by assassinating the previous President and who is benefiting from a decades-long U.S.-sponsored “cover-up” of Pentagon complicity in massacres committed by Kagame’s regime, which even Britain’s Economist has called “the most repressive in Africa.” [1]



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As genocide raged, general’s pleas for help ignored | CNN | DEC 10, 2008 

The Canadian lieutenant general and son of a soldier was about to take up the biggest command of his career — leading United Nations peacekeepers in the central African nation.

A year later he left Rwanda a broken man, having watched helplessly as more than 800,000 people perished in Rwanda’s genocide despite his pleas for more troops to stop the massacre.

“We could have actually saved hundreds of thousands,” Dallaire told CNN’s Christiane Amanpour for “Scream Bloody Murder.”



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U.S./U.N. cover-up of Kagame’s genocide in Rwanda and Congo | SF BAY VIEW | SEP 17, 2010 

A long-standing code of silence inside the U.N. is coming to an end regarding what is probably the largest genocide ever since the U.N. founding: the genocide committed by the Rwandan Patriotic Front since 1990



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What Susan Rice Has Meant for U.S. Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa | THE ATLANTIC | DEC 3, 2012 

How the possible-next Secretary of State helped the U.S. continue a Cold War-style approach to the continent — and aided a new generation of dictators in the process.



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Susan Rice and Africa’s Despots | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 9, 2012 

ON Sept. 2, Ambassador Susan E. Rice delivered a eulogy for a man she called “a true friend to me.” Before thousands of mourners and more than 20 African heads of state in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ms. Rice, the United States’ representative to the United Nations, lauded the country’s late prime minister, Meles Zenawi. She called him “brilliant” — “a son of Ethiopia and a father to its rebirth.”

Few eulogies give a nuanced account of the decedent’s life, but the speech was part of a disturbing pattern for an official who could become President Obama’s next secretary of state. During her career, she has shown a surprising and unsettling sympathy for Africa’s despots.

This record dates from Ms. Rice’s service as assistant secretary of state for African affairs under President Bill Clinton, who in 1998 celebrated a “new generation” of African leaders, many of whom were ex-rebel commanders; among these leaders were Mr. Meles, Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea, Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Jerry J. Rawlings of Ghana, Thabo Mbeki of South Africa and Yoweri K. Museveni of Uganda.



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Rice’s Failure in Rwanda Precludes Her From Becoming Secretary of State | HUFFINGTON POST

That Susan Rice either willfully misled the American people on the Benghazi attacks, or lazily absorbed intelligence briefings without the least bit of personal involvement, is obvious. That she was covering for the Obama Administration in denying a terror attack just weeks before the election is speculative but likely. That she does not, therefore, deserve to become Secretary of State is arguable.

But what is not arguable is that she deserves to be denied the post for a different reason altogether: Rwanda. What emerges when taken together — Rice’s weak response in Benghazi, blaming the murder of four Americans on a stupid video, and her shameful lack of action in the Rwandan genocide — is a career diplomat of singular weakness, lacking the spine or muscularity to assert American moral influence in the world.

Rice was part of Bill Clinton’s National Security Team that in 1994 refused any involvement whatsoever in the Rwanda genocide, leaving more than 800,000 men, women, and children to be hacked to death by machete in the fastest genocide ever recorded. The Clinton Administration had just been spooked by the Black Hawk down incident in Somalia and wanted no further foreign entanglements. But the lengths to which they went to deny assistance to the Tutsis, with Rice being central to the decision-making process, will forever live in infamy.



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Genocide Under Our Watch | FOREIGN POLICY | APR 16, 2015 

Newly declassified White House documents place Richard Clarke and Susan Rice at the forefront of U.S. efforts to limit a robust U.N. peacekeeping operation before and during the 1994 Rwandan genocide.

Nearly two weeks into the 1994 mass killings in Rwanda that would ultimately be called genocide, Eric P. Schwartz, a human rights specialist on the National Security Council, wrote a memorandum to his White House colleagues voicing alarm over reports of tens of thousands of slaughtered ethnic Tutsis.

Human rights groups were pleading for the Clinton administration to help keep 2,500 U.N. peacekeepers on the scene in the Central African country. Human Rights Watch, the New York-based advocacy group, was warning that “Rwandans will quickly become victims of genocide.”

“Is this true?” Schwartz asked Susan Rice, at the time a 29-year-old director of international organizations and peacekeeping on the National Security Council (NSC), and Donald Steinberg, then the NSC’s new director for African affairs, according to a recently declassified White House memo dated April 19, 1994. “If so, shouldn’t it be a major factor informing high-level decision-making on this issue? Has it been?”



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Susan Rice, the War-Lord-Dictator of African Dictators | TESFA NEWS | OCT 9, 2014 

Susan Rice has been waltzing with Africa’s slyest, slickest and meanest dictators for nearly two decades. She has been the acknowledged Guardian Angel, champion, apologist, promoter, advocate and matriarch of the late Ethiopian dictator Meles Zenawi. When it comes to Eritrea, however, her hate for President Isaias Afewerki and the people of Eritrea has clouded her judgment to the point where she cannot differentiate between American national interests and her personal vendetta.



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Poverty, Global Health and Infectious Disease: Lessons from Haiti and Rwanda | US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 

Rwanda’s recent history makes these processes clear. The 1994 Rwandan genocide took an enormous toll on the population—at least 800,000 Rwandans massacred in three brutal months by approximately 15 percent of the population [19]. What commonly escapes our memories, however, is that the Rwandan genocide was predicated on far more than physical violence alone. Structural violence played a very significant role in setting the stage. Peter Uvin has argued that an uncritical development enterprise, dominated by foreigners, contributed to the creation of the processes that led towards genocide. In Aiding Violence, he summarizes:

[A]id financed much of the machinery of exclusion, inequality, and humiliation; provided it with legitimacy and support; and sometimes directly contributed to it. To their credit, some aid agencies—some nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) foremost among them—may have had different impacts; they may have softened some parts of the crises faced by ordinary Rwandans. Yet, by and large, aid was an active and willing partner in the construction of structural violence in Rwanda, as it is elsewhere in Africa [20].



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SHATTERED LIVES | Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath | HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH | 1996

During the 1994 genocide, Rwandan women were subjected to sexual violence on a massive scale, perpetrated by members of the infamous Hutu militia groups known as the Interahamwe, by other civilians, and by soldiers of the Rwandan Armed Forces (Forces Armées Rwandaises, FAR), including the Presidential Guard. Administrative, military and political leaders at the national and local levels, as well as heads of militia, directed or encouraged both the killings and sexual violence to further their political goal: the destruction of the Tutsi as a group. They therefore bear responsibility for these abuses.

Although the exact number of women raped will never be known, testimonies from survivors confirm that rape was extremely widespread and that thousands of women were individually raped, gang-raped, raped with objects such as sharpened sticks or gun barrels, held in sexual slavery (either collectively or through forced “marriage”) or sexually mutilated. These crimes were frequently part of a pattern in which Tutsi women were raped after they had witnessed the torture and killings of their relatives and the destruction and looting of their homes. According to witnesses, many women were killed immediately after being raped.

Other women managed to survive, only to be told that they were being allowed to live so that they would “die of sadness.” Often women were subjected to sexual slavery and held collectively by a militia group or were singled out by one militia man, at checkpoints or other sites where people were being maimed or slaughtered, and held for personal sexual service. The militiamen would force women to submit sexually with threats that they would be killed if they refused. These forced “marriages,” as this form of sexual slavery is often called in Rwanda, lasted for anywhere from a few days to the duration of the genocide, and in some cases longer. Rapes were sometimes followed by sexual mutilation, including mutilation of the vagina and pelvic area with machetes, knives, sticks, boiling water, and in one case, acid.

Throughout the world, sexual violence is routinely directed against females during situations of armed conflict. This violence may take gender-specific forms, like sexual mutilation, forced pregnancy, rape or sexual slavery. Being female is a risk factor; women and girls are often targeted for sexual abuse on the basis of their gender, irrespective of their age, ethnicity or political affiliation.



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AIDS Intersects with Genocide | THE SENTINEL PROJECT | DEC 1, 2013

During the Rwandan genocide in 1994, an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 women and girls were raped in a systematic attempt to annihilate the Tutsi community and remove Hutu moderates and sympathizers (Amnesty International).  Sexual violence has long been practised in the context of war, but what makes many armed conflicts over the past 20 years unique — besides Rwanda, think of those in the Balkans, Liberia, DRC, Sudan, CAR, Sierra Leone — is the scale at which sexual violence has been and continues to be used as a weapon of war.  Add to this the exposure to sexually transmitted and other diseases that rape victims faced, especially to HIV/AIDS in countries where the epidemic was already ramping up.



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RWANDAN GENOCIDE 20 YEARS LATER: HOW AMERICANS WERE LIED TO BY BILL CLINTON WHO TURNED PAUL KAGAME FROM ARSONIST INTO A HERO FIREMAN | CONGO COALITION BLOG | MAR 19, 2014

AS A DEMOCRAT WHO VOTED TWICE FOR BILL CLINTON TO BECOME PRESIDENT OF THE U.S., AS A CHRISTIAN WHO LOVE GOD AND THE TRUTH, AND AS AN AMERICAN WHO LOVE DEMOCRACY, I AM DISAPPOINTED IN PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON FOR LYING TO US, AMERICANS, ABOUT THE RWANDAN “GENOCIDE” IN 1998 WHEN HE MADE PAUL KAGAME – THE ARSONIST WHO TRIGGERED AND DID MOST OF THE KILLINGS – INTO THE HERO FIREMAN WHO ENDED THE KILLINGS…

A Historical Summary of or Background on How The Rwandan “Genocide” Came About:

On July 1st, 1962, Rwanda achieved independence (after having been a German colony from 1884 and a Belgian protectorate after Germany lost WWI). The Germans and the Belgians had favored the minority Tutsis, as kings, ruling over the majority Hutus. At independence, the majority Hutus won the election and formed the government. The Tutsis of mostly the ruling classes chose to go into exile, mostly into Uganda, rather than accept democracy and the rule of the Hutu majority.

In exile in Uganda, these Tutsis integrated the Ugandan society up to becoming officers in the Ugandan army, intelligence, security, and other branches of the government. In the 1990’s, these Tutsis with the help of the Ugandan army, started invading Rwanda to start a civil war in order that they may overthrow the democratically elected Rwandan government. And, since Uganda was an American client state already, the US backed these incursions starting in 1990.

Then, on April 6, 1994, the plane carrying two African heads of state, Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda and Cyprien Ntariamira of Burundi was shot down as it approached the Kigali airport. The two presidents were returning from signing a peace accord in Arusha with Paul Kagame’s rebel movement called RPF so that Rwandans could vote for a new government by 1995. Immediately after the shooting down of the presidential plane, Kagame’s RPF and the Ugandan army invaded Rwanda and started slaughtering people, triggering killings on both sides until July when, finally, Kagame’s RPF took the capital city, Kigali.



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How did it end? Paul Kagame – The Global Elite’s Favorite Strongman | NEW YORK TIMES | SEP 4, 2013

The well-organised Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), backed by Uganda’s army, gradually seized more territory, until 4 July, when its forces marched into the capital, Kigali.

RPF leader and President, Paul Kagame, has been hailed for overseeing rapid economic growth in the tiny country. He has also tried to turn Rwanda into a technological hub and is very active on Twitter.

His critics say he does not tolerate dissent and several opponents have met unexplained deaths.



 

Vision 2020 | REPUBLIC OF RWANDA | 2012

Vision 2020 is a Government development program in Rwanda, launched in 2000 by Rwandan president Paul Kagame.

Its main objective is transforming the country into a knowledge-based middle-income country, thereby reducing poverty, health problems and making the nation united and democratic.

The programme consists of a list of goals which the government aims to achieve before the year 2020:

Good governance
An efficient state
Skilled human capital, including education, health and information technology
A vibrant private sector
A world-class physical infrastructure
Modern agriculture and livestock



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RWANDA PUSHING FOR “CLEAN AND GREEN” ENERGY | WIKILEAKS 09 KIGALI531_a | AUG 27, 2009

The Government of Rwanda (GOR) is pressing forward with development of diversified renewable energy sources to satisfy the majority of its power generation needs by 2012.

MININFRA Donor Coordinator Eva Paul told Wadelton Rwanda is on track to achieve its energy goals and that “the political will is there.” United States-based Contour Global is working to extract methane gas accumulating in Lake Kivu.

Construction of two new hydroelectric plants will add 37MW to the national grid within three years. Additionally, the governments of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi and Tanzania are planning additional multinational hydro projects in Rusizi and Rusumo, she said.

NGOs and development agencies such as USAID are assisting the GOR electrify off-grid health clinics and administrative centers with solar power.

American entrepreneurs are taking the lead in providing solar power solutions to rural communities. Sam Dargan, CEO of Great Lakes Solar Energy, told Wadelton he was interested in providing solar appliances to rural communities–not for social or conservation reasons–but because it was profitable.

Josh Kefauver, COO of United States-based Manna Energy, is working with the GOR to equip rural communities and secondary schools with solar powered water purifiers using ultraviolet light to kill harmful bacteria.

Dargan, citing an example of donor-provided solar powered cell phone chargers to health care workers, said such practices made it more difficult for him to sell similar products for a profit. Free donor-provided resources have inhibited private sector investment in renewable energy, he stated.



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RWANDAN VIEWS ON CLIMATE CHANGE | WIKILEAKS 09KIGALI830_a | DEC 4, 2009

The government of Rwanda (GOR) is aggressively promoting “clean and green” energy (Ref A), conservation and reforestation.

The impacts of climate change are cross-cutting and have affected agriculture, health, energy and degradation of eco-systems. The report estimates that the risk to the rural population from malaria could increase by 150 percent by 2050, adding an additional economic burden to the country.

The Director General of the Rwanda Environmental Management Authority (REMA) Dr. Rose Mukankomeje promoted early warning systems, introducing of crop species resistant to environmental stress, developing renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources and pursuing aggressive reforestation and afforestation programs.

On October 28 the GOR approved a U.S. private sector-sponsored biofuels project in eastern Rwanda. Run by American-owned Eco-Fuel Global and British-owned Eco-Fuel Positive, the project will develop land for production of jatropha and build vegetable oil extraction facilities to process jatropha oil and jatropha seed cake (used as fertilizer).

Still among the poorest countries in the world, Rwanda would benefit from more flexible assistance programs and active private sector investment supported by OPIC, EXIM and USTDA (as in the case of Contour Global’s methane and Eco-Fuel Global’s biofuels). This could make the climate change challenge a win-win for Rwandan and American investors by encouraging more investment and mutually beneficial trade.



 

U.N. Ambassador Rice Helped Thwart Bin Laden Capture | INVESTOR’S BUSINESS DAILY | NOV 21, 2012

Terrorism: Our U.N. ambassador, champion of the altered Benghazi talking points, helped block attempts by Sudan to turn over the world’s most wanted terrorist outright or share intelligence leading to his capture.

Our U.N. ambassador, champion of the altered Benghazi talking points, played a key role in blocking attempts by Sudan to turn over the world’s most wanted terrorist outright or share intelligence leading to his capture.

It does not surprise us that U.N. Ambassador Susan Rice either willfully or blindly parroted altered Benghazi talking points, going on five Sunday news shows on Sept. 16 to push the false narrative that the attack on our consulate in Benghazi was not a terrorist attack but a flash mob inflamed by a months-old Internet trailer insulting to Islam. This isn’t the first time she has been clueless about and blind to the reality of terror.

As we mentioned in an earlier editorial about her possible appointment as secretary of state, “In 1996, while serving as assistant secretary of state for African affairs under former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, Rice helped persuade President Clinton to rebuff Sudan’s offer to turn Osama bin Laden, who was then living there, over to U.S. authorities.”



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Bombs Explode at 2 U.S. Embassies in Africa; Scores Dead | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 8, 1998

Powerful terrorist car bombs exploded just minutes apart outside U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania yesterday, killing at least 81 people — including eight Americans — and injuring more than 1,600. With dozens more Kenyans possibly buried in the rubble of a building next to the embassy, authorities said they fear the death toll could rise much higher.

As U.S. disaster relief units and anti-terrorism specialists were rushed to the two East African capitals, President Clinton angrily vowed to bring justice to those who committed the “cowardly attacks.”

Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright rushed back to Washington, stating that the administration will “spare no effort to use all means at our disposal to track down and punish the perpetrators of these outrageous acts.”

House Speaker Newt Gingrich said the bombings “should be a reminder to all of us that it is a dangerous world as we enter the 21st century. We need much better human intelligence, much more sophisticated efforts to go after terrorists and others.”



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Africa embassy bombings: attacks that propelled Bin Laden into the limelight | THE GUARDIAN | JAN 20, 2015

On 20 August 1998, the factory was destroyed in cruise missile strikes launched by the United States military allegedly in retaliation for the truck bombattacks on its embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya on 7 August. The administration of President Bill Clinton justified the attacks, dubbed Operation Infinite Reach, on the grounds that the al-Shifa plant was involved with processing the deadly nerve agent VX, and had ties with the Islamist al-Qaeda group of Osama bin Laden.

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They bomb pharmacies, don’t they? | SALON | SEP 23, 1998 

On Aug. 20, President Clinton personally ordered the leveling of the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant on the outskirts of Khartoum. More or less simultaneously, another flight of cruise missiles was dropped on various parts of Afghanistan and also — who’s counting? — Pakistan, in an apparent effort to impress the vile Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, of course, hopes to bring a “judgmental” monotheism of his own to bear on these United States, and is thus in some peoples’ minds a sort of Arab version of Ken Starr.



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The Missiles of August | NEW YORKER | OCT 12, 1998

“The Sudanese plant, depicted by the White House as a chemical-warfare facility, was one of 2 targets in a retaliatory raid against Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden, who was linked to the bombings of American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania earlier that month; Tomahawks were also fired at sites in Afghanistan suspected to be terrorist training camps under the control of bin Laden.”



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Look at the Place! Sudan Says, ‘Say Sorry,’ but U.S. Won’t | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 20, 2005 

“Sudan’s government wants the Shifa factory preserved just as it was shortly after 13 Tomahawk cruise missiles took it out in the early evening of August 20. The destroyed factory has become a monument of sorts, a place that Sudanese authorities say symbolizes the mistreatment they have suffered at the hands of the world’s superpower.”

“The government wants it as a showcase,” said Eltayeb Hag Ateya, director of the Peace Studies Institute at the University of Khartoum. “It’s still a thorn in Sudan-American relations. It will always be a point for the Sudanese government to bring up.”

“Well then, what was the hurry? A hurry that was panicky enough for the president and his advisors to pick the wrong objective and then, stained with embarrassment and retraction, to refuse the open inquiry that could have settled the question in the first place? There is really only one possible answer to that question. Clinton needed to look “presidential” for a day.”



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Public Complain of Malaria Vaccine Shortage | GHANA WEB | NOV 3, 2000 

The general public has raised concern and doubt over malaria vaccines, which they said are running short in health centres.

In an interview in health centres, members of the public expressed ‘strong interest’, calling for ‘immediate’ explanation from the health department over what they saw as the acute shortage of chloroquine vaccines at a time when malaria is taking a high toll on the population.

Some people complained that they are always in a desperate situation when the health centre they rely on asks them to buy malaria vaccines.

‘We do not understand why the health centres don’t have sufficient malaria vaccines’ one of them noted.

They claimed that usually disputes broke out between patients and nurses over what some saw as the ‘negligible’ attention given to the sick.

However several health personnel highlighted the government’s ratification and signing of the Roll Black Malaria Charter, should have prevented the shortage. In the wake of the ratification the personnel said they are at a loss – unable to understand why there is a shortage of malaria vaccines in health centres. ‘The government should be very careful with malaria and should provide adequate vaccines in all the health centres, otherwise it can cause a serious setback for the development of this country,’ they warned.



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Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda | ACCORD | OCT 26, 2010

Empirical evidence obtained and secondary data sources indicate that the genocide in Rwanda destroyed not only human resources and social and cultural structures but also infrastructure, development facilities and natural resources which had serious negative consequences on the total environment.

Spread of malaria

The primary research also shows that malaria has now become evident in Cyangugu and other areas where previously this was rare. Most leaders reported that after the genocide malaria posed a significant problem with serious consequences for much of the population. Leaders attributed the prevalence of the disease to poor environmental management and poverty.



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Poverty, Global Health and Infectious Disease: Lessons from Haiti and Rwanda | NCBI | SEP 1, 2012

As demonstrated above, poverty and associated disease rarely arise de novo. Heavy burdens of disease predictably strike those places, most often resource-poor communities, where structural violence weighs most heavily. Moreover, structural violence—institutionalized biases and inequalities including racism, elitism, gender inequality, militarism, and economic policy that fosters inequity—often emanates from global centers of power and privilege, and increases the risk of encounter with communicable disease [18].



The factory was a principal source of Sudan’s anti-malaria and veterinary drugs according to the CBW Conventions Bulletin. | Chemical Weapons



Coincidentally Malaria Spirals Out of Control



Malaria Surveillance – United States, 1999 | CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL

Interpretation:

The 25.5% increase in malaria cases in 1999, compared with 1998, resulted primarily from increases in cases acquired in Africa and the Americas.

This increase is possibly related to a change in the system by which states report to CDC, but it could also have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, increased travel to these regions, improved reporting to state and local health departments, or a decreased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.

In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country where they acquired malaria.



United States Agency for International Development

USAID’s programs are authorized by the Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act, which the Congress supplements through directions in annual funding appropriation acts and other legislation. Although it is technically an independent agency, USAID operates subject to the foreign policy guidance of the President, Secretary of State, and the National Security Council. USAID operates in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.



Evaluating Malaria Interventions in Africa: A Review and Assessment ofRecent Research (pdf)

Evaluating Malaria Interventions In Africa: A Review and Assessment of Recent Research | USAID | NOV 1999

“According to the most recent data, 40% (2,400 million) of the world population in over 90 countries is affected by malaria. In any given year, nearly 10% of the global population will suffer a case of malaria (Malaria International, 1998).”

“There are 300 – 500 million clinical cases of malaria worldwide each year with the majority occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 1998).”

“Malaria has been estimated to cause 9% of all disease in Africa (Nchinda, 1998).”

“According to recent data, there are 1.5 – 2.7 million deaths due to malaria each year, the bulk of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa where an estimated 360 million people live in areas of stable, endemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission (Snow et al., 1999a).”



Rolling Back Malaria (pdf)

Rolling Back Malaria | WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION | 1999

Almost 300 million clinical cases of malaria occur worldwide each year and over one million people die.

Almost 90% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where young children are the most affected.

Malaria is directly responsible for one in five childhood deaths in Africa and indirectly contributes to illness and deaths from respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and malnutrition.

The author then uses factual information in a manner that is very misleading.

“Chloroquine, perhaps the best ever antimalarial drug, and certainly the most widely used, is now failing against falciparum malaria in most areas of the tropical world.”

True

“In some areas, such as parts of South-East Asia and South America, chloroquine is now completely ineffective against P. falciparum malaria.”

True, but we’re talking about Africa. That’s where the problem is.

“In many parts of India and Africa, its effectiveness is falling rapidly.”

True, but still misleading. Per the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), “despite declining use, CQ remained the first-line therapy for uncomplicated P.f. malaria in the majority of sub-Saharan countries until after 2000.” | US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

“For the treatment of falciparum malaria, the usual successor to chloroquine is a combination of pyrimethamine and a long acting sulphonamide (SP), which is also affordable and well tolerated. Five countries in Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland) have now been forced to switch from chloroquine to SP as the first line antimalarial treatment.”

“Unfortunately, in several of the areas where it has been deployed, notably South-East Asia and South America, P. falciparum has become widely SP-resistant.”

We were talking about sub-Saharan Africa.



The resurgence of malaria (and AIDS) is largely the result of ‘foreign policy’ decisions, made during the Bush & Clinton administrations.



World Health Organization (WHO) backs controversial chemical for malaria control | SCI DEV NET | SEP 18, 2006

The controversial insecticide DDT — which most nations have banned — is back on the menu for malaria control after the World Health Organization reversed a 30-year old policy on Friday (15 September).

The move puts annual indoor spraying of DDT alongside drugs and bednets as one of the three main tools for controlling the disease.

“The scientific and programmatic evidence clearly supports this reassessment,” said Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, assistant director-general for HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria at the World Health Organization (WHO).

“[Indoor spraying] has proven to be just as cost-effective as other malaria prevention methods, and DDT presents no health risk when used properly.”

The chemical kills the mosquitoes that spread malaria. It helped eradicate the disease from southern Europe and North America in the 1960s.

DDT is also toxic to birds, fish and mammals. It accumulates in the food chain and remains in the environment for many years. In the 1970s, growing awareness of these threats led many countries to ban its use in agriculture.



Malaria linked to catastrophic spread of AIDS in Africa | SCI DEV NET | DEC 8, 2006

Research in Kenya indicates that the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS across Africa could be linked to malaria.

The work has important implications for public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need to tackle both diseases together.

There is considerable geographical overlap between HIV/AIDS — which infects over 40 million people in Africa — and malaria, which causes 500 million clinical infections each year.

People with both malaria and HIV/AIDS are more likely to transmit the HIV virus, according to the study published in the journal Science today (8 December). This may have promoted the rapid spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

“We have always known the relationship between [malaria and HIV/AIDS], but we did not know the impact it had on the spread: now we have a reference point,” says Ayub Manya, an epidemiologist with the Kenyan National Malaria Control Programme.



World Bank head praises DDT use against malaria | SCI DEV NET | MAR 19, 2007

World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz has praised South Africa’s malaria control programme, saying the country’s use of indoor residual spraying has reduced malaria episodes.

Wolfowitz says he will consider taking South Africa’s approach to other malaria-affected countries. He committed around US$48 million for malaria control in 14 African countries, which could increase, depending on success.



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’The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group’

The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group – having a joint vision for a major contribution to a world free from malaria morbidity and mortality through vaccination – has its origins in discussions among representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
The European Commission (EC)
The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP)
The European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Extramural Malaria Program
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Malaria Vaccine Development Program (MVDP)
The Wellcome Trust
The World Health Organization (WHO) Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR)



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President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) | WIKIPEDIA | MAR 23, 2017

is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.

Implementing Agencies

Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC)
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department of Defense (DoD)
Department of Commerce (DoC)
Department of Labor (DoL)
Peace Corps

The program has provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) to over 7.7 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings and supported HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for more than 56.7 million people as of 2014.[1] PEPFAR increased the number of Africans receiving ART from 50,000 at the start of the initiative in 2004.[2][3][4] PEPFAR has been called the largest health initiative ever initiated by one country to address a disease. The budget presented for the fiscal year 2016 included a request for $1.11 billion for PEPFAR as well as contributions from global organizations such as UNAIDS and private donors.



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Africa’s clinical trial: Big Pharma deploys R&D in Africa | THIS IS AFRICA | JUN 24, 2013

Aside from the most contentious episodes, there was also a general lack of interest in product development.

Companies showed little inclination to research the so-called ‘neglected’ diseases, as they could not see any way to recoup their investment.

Only 13 new drugs were developed for this disease group between 1975 and 1996 out of more than 1,200 new drugs globally, and all but four were accidental by-products of other research.

By 1995, the 15 biggest pharmaceutical companies had virtually closed down tropical disease research efforts.



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Unethical Clinical Trials Still Being Conducted in Developing Countries | HUFFINGTON POST | OCT 3, 2014

In 1997, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group brought widespread international attention to unethical clinical trials.

The trials were testing new methods for preventing the spread of HIV infection from pregnant women to their babies before or after giving birth in developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.

In each of these trials, most of which were funded by the U.S. government, some women were randomly assigned to receive placebos or other treatments known to be ineffective, rather than a drug proven effective in preventing the spread of HIV infection from mother to baby.



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The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review | WORKING PAPERS – HARVARD | MAR 1999

In 1990, the WHO estimated global malaria incidence at about 120 million clinical cases annually.

In 1994, they estimated 300-500 million cases annually.

The life-cycle of vector-borne diseases like malaria is complex relative to that of many directly-transmitted human diseases (including bacterial or viral diseases like bacterial meningitis or HIV).

Figure 1 shows an overlay of data from World Health Organization maps of malaria risk in 1946, 1966, and 1994, illustrating the extent of this localization to the tropics. Of about 120 countries, islands, or colonies where malaria was endemic in 1945, the disease has disappeared from 15 European countries, about seven islands or archipelagoes, the United States, Israel, and Chile.

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As table 1 shows, the current (1999) situation is not uniform.

For example, only 9% of Malaysia’s population lives in regions where malaria is transmitted, and in 1994 59,000 cases of malaria were diagnosed in health clinics serving a total population of 20 million people. In contrast, the whole of Tanzania’s population of 29 million remains at risk of contracting the disease, with more than 8 million diagnosed in health clinics in 1994.

About 40% of the world’s population remains at risk for infection, of whom 19% live in Africa; in addition, about 90% of clinical malaria cases occur in sub-saharan Africa.

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MALARIA | OUR WORLD IN DATA | ARCHIVED JAN 1, 2017

Africa is the world region that is most affected by malaria: In 2015, the African continent held 9 out of 10 malaria victims



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Conducting clinical trials in emerging markets of sub-Saharan Africa: review of guidelines and resources for foreign sponsors | DOVE PRESS | OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC & MEDICAL RESEARCH | JAN 7, 2015

Clinical trials provide a foundation for new drug development processes, as well as for product license extensions for existing therapies.

The reduction in the amount of time and cost to conduct a clinical trial becomes important, as competition to bring a new drug to the market is increasing, and so is the search for new markets.

Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia offer a diverse patient population, as well as a comparatively research-friendly and ambitious government to develop these countries as pharmaceutical and health sectors of excellence.

All these countries have their own guidelines to conduct clinical trials that feature some similarities and some subtle differences.

Over the last decade, the guidelines have been evolving to provide a good ground to foreign sponsor, which carry out clinical trials while keeping the interest of patients as a priority.



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Anger at deadly Nigerian drug trials | BBC NEWS | JUN 20, 2007

In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria.

Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to administer an experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, to approximately 200 children.

Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities.



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Tenofovir trials on HIV transmission | THE LANCET | SOMO pg 4 | 2004–2005

Drugs | lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir) + tenofovir (Viread) or nevirapine (Viramune) or abacavir (Ziagen) (DART trial)
Treatment | Anti-retroviral therapy (ART)
Sponsors | UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Rockefeller Foundation, DfID (Uganda), GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Boehringer-Ingelheim
Period | 2003 – 2006 (DART trial
Location | Uganda, Zimbabwe, Côte d’Ivoire



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ART treatment interruption trials (DART TRIALS) | SOMO pg 3 | 2003-2006

Drugs | Tenofovir (Viread)
Treatment | Prevention of HIV transmission
Sponsors | Gilead, US CDC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Research organization | Family Health International (FHI) in Africa, US NIH in Cambodia
Period | 2004 – 2005
Location | Cameroon, Thailand, Nigeria



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Nevirapine PMTCT trials in Uganda | SOMO pg 6

Drug | nevirapine (Viramune)
Treatment | HIV prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)
Sponsors | Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), US National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Period | 1997 – 2003
Location | Uganda



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Ragaglitazar trials in India and other countries | SOMO pg 12

Drugs | ragaglitazar
Treatment | Diabetes treatment
Sponsors | Novo Nordisk
Period | 2002
Location | 32 countries, including India



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’Many drugs for U.S. kids tested in poor countries’ | REUTERS | AUG 23, 2010

A law intended to speed up development of new drugs for U.S. kids has ended up financing clinical trials in poor countries, where the medicines might never become available.”The trend that we describe brings up some scientific and ethical problems,” said Dr. Sara K. Pasquali, a pediatrician at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, whose findings appear in the journal Pediatrics.According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.”Recruiting people is easy, getting informed consent is easy, getting approval is easy, paying the patients and paying the doctors is easy,” Ghayur said. “The physicians and investigators have absolutely no idea about the seriousness of the situation.”


LOBBYING FEES PAID TO PODESTA GROUP

1998 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $120,000
1999 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $140,000
2000 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2001 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $20,000
2002 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2003 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $330,000
2004 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2005 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2006 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000



 

According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.



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Trials on foster care children in New York | SOMO pg 14

Drugs | Various ARV drug combinations and vaccines: didanosine, zidovudine, nevirapine, ritonavir, valacyclovir, Live-Attenuated Varicella Vaccine (Varivax) Seven Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Recombinant Interleukin-2 (rIL-2) Recombinant Envelope Proteins of HIV-1 gp160 and gp120
Treatment | ARV therapy, vaccination against infectious diseases
Sponsors | US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Genentech, MicroGeneSystems, Lederle-Praxis Biologicals
Period | 1997 – 2002
Location | New York, US


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Guinea Pig Kids | BBC | NOV 29, 2004

HIV positive children – some only a few months old – are enrolled in toxic experiments without the consent of guardians or relatives.The city’s Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) does not even require a court order to place HIV kids with foster parents or in children’s homes, where they can continue to give them experimental drugs.



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‘New York’s HIV experiment’ | BBC | NOV 30, 2004

Jacklyn Hoerger’s job was to treat children with HIV at a New York children’s home.But nobody had told her that the drugs she was administering were experimental and highly toxic.



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SFBC Miami test centre | SOMO pg 7

Drugs | Various
Sponsors | Pfizer, Merck & Co, Johnson & Johnson, Schering-Plough, Theravance, Purdue Pharma, AstraZeneca, and others
Research organization | SFBC
Period | 2000 – 2005
Location | Miami, USA



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Side Effects May Include Lawsuits | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 2, 2010

Every major company selling the antipsychotics — Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — has either settled recent government cases, under the False Claims Act, for hundreds of millions of dollars or is currently under investigation for possible health care fraud.


PODESTA GROUP LOBBYING FEES

2012 | Bristol-Myers Squibb | $100,000

1999 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2000 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2004 | Pfizer Inc | $100,000
2005 | Pfizer Inc | $180,000
2006 | Pfizer Inc | $240,000
2007 | Pfizer Inc | $40,000
2011 | Johnson & Johnson | $100,000
2012 | Johnson & Johnson | $160,000
2013 | Johnson & Johnson | $200,000
2014 | Johnson & Johnson | $50,000

CLINTON FOUNDATION DONATIONS | WASHINGTON POST

Johnson & Johnson | $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca | PLC $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP | $50,001 – $100,000



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Malaria drug causes brain damage that mimics PTSD: case study | MILITARY TIMES | AUG 11, 2016

The case of a service member diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder but found instead to have brain damage caused by a malaria drug raises questions about the origin of similar symptoms in other post-9/11 veterans.

According to the case study published online in Drug Safety Case Reports in June, a U.S. military member sought treatment at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, for uncontrolled anger, insomnia, nightmares and memory loss.



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Leaked Podesta email discussing price fixing AIDS drugs for their benefit. | WIKILEAKS | DEC 12, 2011

“We were taken by surprise by President Clinton’s comments on world AIDS day and wish that someone had consulted with us before he made these comments.” …

…” We have always told the drug companies that we would not pressure them and create a slippery slope where prices they negotiate with us for poor countries would inevitably lead to similar prices in rich countries.” …

… “We would have to initiate discussions with multiple state health officials as well as HHS in addition to talking with the drug companies.” …

… “Whatever we decide, we need to make a decision quickly and President Clinton and CHAI need to be in synch. I do not think it is a good idea for President Clinton to be taking one position and CHAI another.” …



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Is the Clinton Foundation Responsible for the High Price of AIDS Drugs in the US? | HUFFINGTON POST | DEC 30, 2016

“If you really had to think long and hard about it, the ultimate result of years of negotiations by the Clinton Foundation was that the price of AIDS drugs ended up being high in the US.”

“Furthermore, African governments were paranoid that drug companies were a part of a massive conspiracy suppressing their countries.”



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Clinton Foundation AIDS Program Distributed ‘Watered-Down’ Drugs to Third World Countries | DAILY CALLER | SEP 19, 2016

Former President Bill Clinton and his Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) distributed “watered-down” HIV/AIDs drugs to patients in sub-Saharan Africa, and “likely increased” the risks of morbidity and mortality.

The CHAI program to help AIDS victims is considered one of the Clinton Foundation’s most important contributions and is probably its best known initiative.

Ranbaxy ultimately pleaded guilty in 2013 to seven criminal counts with intent to defraud and the introduction of adulterated drugs into interstate commerce.

The Department of Justice further levied a $500 million fine and forfeiture on the company.

Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. donated $100,001 – $250,000 to the Clinton Foundation.


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Clinton Foundation Advised World Bank on Contracts That Netted Donors Millions | FREE BEACON | AUG 16, 2016

Two of every three dollars spent acquiring anti-tuberculosis drugs through the program, which is administered by the World Bank, have gone to two companies—Swiss health care giant Novartis and Indian drug company Lupin Ltd.—that together have donated up to $130,000 to the Clinton Foundation.

The project, dubbed the Second National Tuberculosis Control Project (SNTCP), is financed by the World Bank’s International Development Association, which receives the bulk of its funding from the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany.

Clinton has pointed to her foundation’s work in promoting access to pharmaceuticals in the developing world as an example of its laudatory humanitarian mission.

However, critics have noted how beneficiaries of other foundation-backed pharmaceutical access programs have made large financial contributions to the group. Companies that received funds from the foundation to provide low-cost HIV drugs, for instance, were donors to the foundation.



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BLACKBURN RELEASES CLINTON FOUNDATION REPORT | CONGRESSMAN MARSHA BLACKBURN | SEP 20, 2016

The Clinton Foundation Likely Facilitated The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa Through Its Health Access Initiative.

The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa May Have Increased Patient Mortality Rates.

Watered Down HIV/AIDS ARVs Were Purchased With Taxpayer Money Through PEPFAR As A Result of Price Agreements, Some of Which Were Likely Negotiated By The Clinton Foundation.

President Clinton Was Personally Enriched With Million Dollar Consulting Contracts By A Friend of Convicted Felon, and Ranbaxy advocate, Rajat Gupta From 2002-2008.



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Lobbyists for Clinton’s ‘Enemies’ Are Bankrolling Her Campaign | FREE BEACON | OCT 14, 2015

Asked to name the enemies that she is most proud of during Tuesday’s Democratic presidential debate, Hillary Clinton cited industries represented by lobbyists who are among her top campaign fundraisers.

In addition to Iran and the Republican Party, Clinton said she was proud to count “the health insurance companies” and “the drug companies” as her enemies.

Those industries’ lobbyists do not appear to share that enmity. By mid-July, seven of them had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for her presidential campaign, according to campaign finance records.

They include Heather and Tony Podesta, the recently divorced Democratic power brokers. Heather Podesta represents health insurer Cigna, while Tony lobbies on behalf of pharmaceutical firms Amgen and EMD Serono, a division of drug giant Merck.

The Podestas have also given as much as $150,000 to the Clinton Foundation, according to that group’s list of donors.

Insurers Humana and Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina and drug company Pfizer have donated between $1 million and $5 million. Merck has given $250,000 to $500,000; AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson have donated $100,000 to $250,000.

One of the speakers at this year’s annual Clinton Global Initiative summit was Merck chairman and chief executive Kenneth Frazier, a PhRMA board member. Last year, CGI hosted the president of health care consulting firm Rabin Martin, which represents a number of drug companies. The year before, it announced financial commitments from Pfizer, one of multiple such charitable commitments that drug company has made through the Clinton Foundation.



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Clinton Foundation Briefing: Africa 2012 | WIKILEAKS (pg. 9 of attachment)

“CLINTON HEALTH ACCESS INITIATIVE (CHAI) first began working in South Africa in 2003, when the government asked for assistance to develop a plan to significantly scale up HIV services and access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 2009, CHAI was invited back to partner with the South African Government to help improve the response to HIV and TB, which laid the foundation for the most aggressive expansion of HIV testing and treatment ever attempted in the world. In addition to the CHAI HIV/AIDS work, CHAI also supports the National Department of Health (NDOH) with efforts to eliminate malaria.”

“CHAI worked with the government to develop implementation plans for testing and treatment and to select facilities for ART scale-up. From April 2010 to March 2012, the number of facilities providing ART increased from 495 to over 3000, and in the last year close to 430,000 people started treatment. Since April 2010, nearly 20 million HIV tests were conducted in South Africa.”



 

Microsoft Joins Child Safety Advocates, Law Enforcement for Fourth Global Law Enforcement Training in Paarl, South Africa | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | SEP 6, 2004

PAARL, SOUTH AFRICA/PRNewswire-FirstCall/ – To address the growing problem of children’s safety on the Internet around the world, the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, Interpol and Microsoft Corp. (Nasdaq: MSFT) continue their series of international training programs for law enforcement personnel who investigate computer-facilitated crimes against children this week in Paarl, Western Cape, South Africa.

The training conference, which begins Sept. 6 and runs through Sept. 9, brings together 73 worldwide law enforcement representatives from 12 countries for four days of extensive training on investigating online child predators, collecting evidence and computer forensic information, and seeking private industry assistance in child exploitation investigations. Representatives from Botswana, France, Ghana, Italy, Lesotho, Qatar, South Africa, Spain, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe are meeting in Paarl this week



CHAI UPDATE – February 2013 | WIKILEAKS (attachment)



Industry-sponsored clinical drug trials in Egypt | SOMO | JUN 21, 2016

The past 20 years have seen a considerable shift in the location of clinical drug trials sponsored by transnational pharmaceutical companies (TNCs), with a significant ex-pansion of such tests being conducted in low- and middle-income settings. This increased offshoring may result in serious ethical violations as highlighted by several recent field investigations and media reports.

An attractive research infrastructure, a fast-growing and largely treatment-naïve population, and lower costs make Egypt among the most popular places in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region for offshoring medicine testing. Egypt is second only to South Africa on the African continent in terms of the number of TNC-sponsored clinical trials it hosts.

Of the 57 international drug trials that were active in Egypt in February 2016, over half were cancer trials. The two Swiss giants Novartis and Roche are responsible for almost 50 per cent of the international drug trials taking place in the country. The Arab spring events of early 2011 and the subsequent political unrest had no chilling effect on the number of active international drug trials – on the contrary.

Egypt has the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis C in the world, and was the frst low- or middle-income country in 2014 to negotiate preferential pricing for the new direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment sofosbuvir (Sovaldi®) with manufacturer Gilead.



Raymond Schinazi fled Nasser’s Egypt to become pioneer in antivirals | FINANCIAL TIMES | JUL 27, 2014

He personally had a hand in discovering and developing several key treatments for HIV and hepatitis C. These include Gilead’s Sovaldi, which has had the best-selling debut in pharmaceutical history: sales hit $5.8bn in the first half of 2014.



The Drug That is Bankrupting America | HUFFINGTON POST | FEB 2, 2015



Former VA Scientist Responds to Lawmaker’s Suspicions over Drug Sale | MILITARYdotCOM

The drug shown to cure hepatitis C is sold by Gilead Sciences of California under the brand name Sovaldi, but it was developed at Pharmasset, a private lab owned by Dr. Raymond Schinazi while he worked for the VA Medical Center in Atlanta and Emory University.

Today, skeptical lawmakers question whether Schinazi got rich using VA resources and funding. He sold Pharmasset, and with it the drug, to Gilead in 2011 for $11 billion.



Hepatitis C Drug Maker is Price Gouging, republican lawmaker says | MILITARY TIMES | JAN 27, 2016

The chairman of the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee has accused the makers of hepatitis C drug sofosbuvir of opportunism and price-gouging for charging the U.S. government up to $68,000 for a treatment regimen that costs about $1,400 to manufacture.



Dr. Raymond F. Schinazi

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Board of Advisors
Emory University School of Medicine | Professor of Pediatrics
RFS Pharma LLC | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences in 2003)
Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Pharmasset (VRUS) | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences for $11B IN 2012)
Foundation for AIDS Reserach | Governing Trustee



In the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic shift in clinical trial practices with companies now primarily outsourcing pipeline testing to third world countries. | SOMO

During this time, the Clinton Foundation and its partners began constructing a vast network of infrastructure throughout the Third World. Clinton’s trip to Africa in 1998 was the longest trip in history by a US President | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 47421 | ATTACHMENT



Clinton Health Access Initiative opened for business in South Africa in 2003. | WIKILEAKS

They brokered the distribution of vital pharmaceutical resources and established “public-private” partnerships in the healthcare industry to formulate public policy, implement planning and monitor the implementation of the programs. The main focuses were HIV/AIDS & Malaria.



South Africa is being exploited by the international drug companies to boost patient numbers and that the trials provide no long-term benefit for either the patients or local research staff | The Clinical Trials Industry in South Africa: Ethics, Rules and Realities

Given the current state of South Africa’s struggling public health sector, it is clear that in many cases, people are not in a position to access or afford the medicines or specialist treatment they may need. Therefore the opportunity to participate in clinical trials and receive treatment for free is a tempting proposition for many | Clinical Trials in SA



 

Andre Pienaar

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Good Governance Group (G3) | Founder
C5 Capital (partnered with Amazon Web Services) | Founder
Kroll Inc | Manager, Africa & Natural Resources Division
BAE Systems | Contractor for BAE through C5 Capital
United States Institute of Peace | International Advisory Council

Andre is a private investor. He serves as the Executive Chairman of C5 Partners, a specialist technology investment company. He also serves as the Deputy Chairman of the Advisory Council of Cranemere Inc, a permanent capital industrial investment company.

He founded and served as the Group CEO of the Good Governance Group (G3) (2004-2014), a consulting firm that advises global companies and international law firms on foreign direct investment, compliance and cybersecurity.

He serves as a trustee of the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation, a charity focused on wildlife conservation. Andre is also a Council Member of the African Union Foundation, a charitable organisation emerging from the African Union which works to mobilise domestic resources for Africa’s development. Andre is Founder and Chairman of the Leadership Technology Centre, a charitable organisation which aims to facilitate the provision of technologies and services to community and charity leaders.

Andre is an Advocate of the Supreme Court of South Africa.



TANZANIA | CIA | UPDATED JAN 12, 2017


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Introduction:

One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers’ claims of voting irregularities.

The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar’s two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.


 Geography:

Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya).

Bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world’s second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world’s second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest.


 Trafficking in Persons:

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.

The exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem.

Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats.

Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US.

Internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs.

Trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked.

Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.

Granted exemption from downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law;

Authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)


 Population:

Lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.



Howard Buffet | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 52883 | MAR 16, 2012

From:adesai@clintonfoundation.org
To: blindsey@clintonfoundation.org, lgraham@clintonfoundation.org, doug@presidentclinton.com, justin@presidentclinton.com, john.podesta@gmail.com CC: bob.harrison@clintonglobalinitiative.org, ed.hughes@clintonglobalinitiative.org, wmorris@clintonfoundation.org, dcheng@clintonfoundation.org Date: 2012-03-16 13:34 Subject: Howard Buffett

Had a good call today with Howard Buffett. Like WJC, he talked about strengthening agriculture (sustainably) in developing countries in Africa, Latin/Central America, and beyond; and also in reconfiguring US food aid to enable more local purchasing of food aid rather than shipping US farm produce overseas. [Besides running his farm, he runs farms in South Africa and Central America and is currently a UN WFP Ambassador and advocate for their Purchase for Progress initiative.] He was surprised to learn there are so many shared interests. We discussed a few areas of possible future collaboration, all of which effectively are either “talking” or “doing,” on which I’d welcome your feedback:

DOING

COUNTRY VISIT. We discussed WJC’s agriculture work in Rwanda/Malawi/Peru/Colombia and he is intrigued. He said he’s visiting South Africa (where he runs a 9,000 acre farm) in August and would like to visit Malawi/Rwanda to see CF projects. We can help facilitate his visit. I didn’t mention WJC’s Africa trip but should we consider a joint-visit whenever WJC goes? [He liked the Neno wheat example of working ourselves out of a job.]

– CDI. Funding for scaling-up commercial farms in Malawi/Tanzania. I explained our interest in growing the program, he said he’d like to work together given a lot of shared interests, and that he’ll be able to make a decision after seeing our work first-hand. Whenever he visits Malawi, we should be prepared with a specific ask.

CARLOS SLIM. He said he has been in discussions with Marco about doing joint agriculture work in Mexico and he asked if we’d be open to discussing it and to WJC being involved as the convener. I said we work with Slim as well and that we’d be happy to discuss it together.

TALKING

He is writing a book and would like to profile WJC’s agriculture work (we discussed Malawi). I said we’d be happy to discuss it further and provide him with more information about the projects. – CGI. He’s going to try to come to CGI in September. He said it’s right around corn harvest so he doesn’t like being away from his farm but he will try to come for one day.

He asked if there any appetite to do joint advocacy on agriculture issues – most notably US food aid. I tried to bring it back to CGI as an opportunity for him to share his message there under the umbrella of CGI. It would be good to give him information on any agriculture-related programming or action networks being contemplated for September, for him to weigh-in on.

Hope this helps, and I’d welcome your feedback. Thanks, Ami



New generation of African leaders

The term “new generation” or “new breed” of African leaders was a buzzword widely used in the mid-late 1990s to express optimism in a new generation of African leadership. It has since fallen out of favor, along with several of the leaders the term was used for.

When US president Bill Clinton made his African journey in March 1998, he helped popularize this notion when he said he placed hope in a new generation of African leaders devoted to democracy and economic reforms. Although Clinton did not identify the African leaders by name, it is generally assumed that he was referring to, among others, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia and Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea.