“The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed. The agitation it produces must be submitted to. It is necessary, to keep the waters pure.”
The Clinton family accepted money from hostile nations and defense contractors of domestic & foreign origin. Then, in systematic fashion, they approved government contracts for those companies, allowing them to distribute military hardware to those nations.
Prior to that, they waged biological war on an entire continent by systemactically polluting water sources, cutting off pharmaceutical supply, and starting war. The pharmaceutical companies who profited from this? They paid more than the defense contractors.
(b) Responsibility for supervision and direction of sales, leases, financing, cooperative projects, and exports Under the direction of the President, the Secretary of State (taking into account other United States activities abroad, such as military assistance, economic assistance, and the food for peace program) shall be responsible for the continuous supervision and general direction of sales, leases, financing, cooperative projects, and exports under this chapter, including, but not limited to, determining whether there will be a sale to or financing for a country and the amount thereof;
whether there will be a lease to a country;
whether there will be a cooperative project and the scope thereof; and
whether there will be delivery or other performance under such sale, lease, cooperative project, or export, to the end that sales, financing, leases, cooperative projects, and exports will be integrated with other United States activities and to the end that the foreign policy of the United States would be best served thereby.
Clinton ran the agency that is responsible for regulating U.S. arms exports.
State Department exports approvals substantially increased to governments that donated to the Clinton Foundation.
Federal law explicitly designates the Secretary of State as “responsible for the continuous supervision and general direction of sales” of arms, and early in her term, the State Department called one arms deal a “top priority” for Clinton.
Clinton Foundation Donors Include:
Gulf Finance House (Bahrain) $50,001 – $100,000
US approved $40 billion in 2009 private arms sales | WASHINGTON POST ARTICLE | MAR 11 2011
The U.S. government approved $40 billion in worldwide private arms sales in 2009, including more than $7 billion to Mideast and North African nations that are struggling with political upheaval, the State Department reported.
From 2008 to 2009, the U.S. authorized increasing sales of military shipments to the now-toppled Egyptian government of Hosni Mubarak and the embattled kingdom of Bahrain.
The $40 billion figure during the first year of the Obama administration reflects a rise in total approved arms sales over the final year of the Bush administration in 2008, when the State Department licensed $34.2 billion.
The $7.3 billion in U.S.-approved defense sales to Mideast and North African countries in 2009 totaled up to nearly a fifth of the entire $40 billion in licensed sales – indications of both the region’s strategic importance and their governments’ willingness to pay top dollar for American defense equipment.
Iraq, where U.S. forces are still drawing down and the fledgling government is struggling against militants, was the biggest buyer ($1.51 billion), closely followed by Turkey ($1.50 billion) and the United Arab Emirates ($1.09 billion).
U.S. Arms Sales Make Up Most of Global Market | AUG. 26, 2012 | NY TIMES ARTICLE
Weapons sales by the United States tripled in 2011 to a record high, driven by major arms sales to Persian Gulf allies.
Overseas weapons sales by the United States totaled $66.3 billion.
The American weapons sales total was an “extraordinary increase” over the $21.4 billion in deals for 2010, the study found, and was the largest single-year sales total in the history of United States arms exports. The previous high was in fiscal year 2009, when American weapons sales overseas totaled nearly $31 billion.
Increasing tensions drove a set of Persian Gulf nations – Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman to purchase weapons at record levels.
The agreements with Saudi Arabia included the purchase of 84 advanced F-15 fighters, a variety of ammunition, missiles and logistics support, and upgrades of 70 of the F-15 fighters in the current fleet.
Sales to Saudi Arabia last year also included dozens of Apache and Black Hawk helicopters, all contributing to a total Saudi weapons deal from the United States of $33.4 billion, according to the study.
The United Arab Emirates purchased a Terminal High Altitude Area Defense, an advanced antimissile shield that includes radars and is valued at $3.49 billion, as well as 16 Chinook helicopters for $939 million.
Oman bought 18 F-16 fighters for $1.4 billion.
Here’s who buys the most weapons from the U.S. | CNN ARTICLE | MAY 25, 2016
The U.S. is responsible for nearly 33% of worldwide exports — by far the top arms exporter on the planet — but which countries does the U.S. sell the most weapons to?
Saudi Arabia was the top recipient of American-made arms from 2011-2015, followed closely by the United Arab Emirates.
Experts believe the Middle East will remain a top destination for weapons for some time — it currently accounts for about 40% of U.S. arms exports — especially given the rise of ISIS.
The American exports include everything from small arms to fighter jet aircraft and tanks, to Patriot Missile batteries.
U.S. defense companies were explicit in their desire to boost international exports in the wake of recent defense budget cuts.
CEO of U.S. defense giant Lockheed Martin, Marillyn Hewson, said, “One area where we expect the majority of our growth potential to come from in the years ahead is our international customers.”
Under Clinton’s leadership, the State Department approved $165 billion worth of commercial arms sales to 20 nations whose governments have given money to the Clinton Foundation | INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TIMES
Even by the standards of arms deals between the United States and Saudi Arabia, this one was enormous. A consortium of American defense contractors led by Boeing would deliver $29 billion worth of advanced fighter jets to the United States’ oil-rich ally in the Middle East.
At press conferences in Washington to announce the department’s approval, an assistant secretary of state, Andrew Shapiro, declared that the deal had been “a top priority” for Clinton personally.
In the years before Hillary Clinton became secretary of state, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contributed at least $10 million to the Clinton Foundation.
Just two months before the deal was finalized, Boeing — the defense contractor that manufactures one of the fighter jets the Saudis were especially keen to acquire, the F-15 — contributed $900,000 to the Clinton Foundation, according to a company press release.
“Donations” to the Clinton Foundation”
The Lockheed Martin Foundation $10,001 – $25,000
Lockheed Martin Corporation $100,001 – $250,000
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $6,600,000
1998 | Lockheed Martin | $20,000
Side note: Mr. James Comey served as General Counsel and Senior Vice President of Lockheed Martin Corporation from October 1, 2005 to June 24, 2010.
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $3,450,000
“Donations” to the Clinton Foundation
The Boeing Company $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $1,130,000
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $200,000
2010 | Raytheon Co | $20,000
Michael C. Ruettgers
“Donation” to the Clinton Foundation
George R. Oliver
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $970,000 + $650,000
“Donation” to the Clinton Foundation
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $2,850,000
“Donation” to the Clinton Foundation
G.E. loves Clinton | THE CENTER FOR PUBLIC INTEGRITY | MAY 24, 2016
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $3,600,000
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $3,460,000
2016 | Textron Inc | $270,000
“Donation” to the Clinton Foundation
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $690,000
2009 | United Technologies | $180,000
United Technologies sold China software for attack copter | USA TODAY | JUN 28, 2012
In June 2012, United States charged Hamilton Sundstrand, its parent company United Technologies, and Canadian affiliate Pratt & Whitney Canada, of selling engine control software to China, which aided in the development of the CAIC Z-10.
UTC, Hamilton Sundstrand, SolarReserve
The very next year, SolarReserve hired the Podesta Group.
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $1,510,000
2016 | SolarReserve | $150,000
Kingdom of Morocco requests permission to purchase 200 M1A1 Abrams Tanks | DSCA | JUN 18, 2012
The prime contractor will be General Dynamics Land Systems in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Estimated cost $1.015 billion.
Morocco receives Abrams tanks from U.S. Army | ARMY.MIL | AUG 22, 2016
Remember that meeting in Morocco that the Clintons just had to attend?
CLINTON ‘CHARITY’ RECEIVED ABOUT $12,000,000 FROM THE KING OF MOROCCO AND VARIOUS MOROCCAN OWNED ENTITIES | DAILYCALLER
The Moroccan monarch’s funds went to the Clinton Foundation’s endowment and to CGI.
The actual meeting was paid for by OCP, the Moroccan-government-owned mining company that has been accused of serious human rights violations. Clinton vigorously supported the Moroccan King as Secretary of State and the U.S.-financed Export-Import Bank gave OCP a $92 million loan guarantee during her tenure.
The mining company also contributed between $5 million to $10 million to the Clinton Foundation, according to the charity’s web site.
The Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice charged OCP with “serious human rights violations,” including exploitation of workers by not “adequately compensating the impoverished people who live there.”
“OCP is the first beneficiary of the war and the first beneficiary of the occupation — it is the one that is cashing in on the misery of thousands of refugees and hundreds of political detainees for the past 40 years.”
Hillary took $12,000,000 from Morocco in 2015 | CNN ARTICLE | OCT 21, 2016
Fox News Just Landed A Brutal, Clean Hit On Hillary Clinton’s Campaign | HUFFINGTON POST | OCT 23, 2016
My apologies | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 4335 | NOV 19, 2014
Email correspondence between Huma Abedin, Cheryl Mills, John Podesta, Robby Mook, Jake Sullivan regarding the Clinton Global Initiative meeting in Morocco Huma Abedin:
“Morocco: No matter what happens, she will be in Morocco hosting CGI on May 5-7, 2015. Her presence was a condition for the Moroccans to proceed so there is no going back on this. Important that you know background.”
CGI AFRICA | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 22030 | JAN 1 2015
“Just to give you some context, the condition upon which the Moroccans agreed to host the meeting was her participation.”
“This was HRC’s idea, our office approached the Moroccans and they 100 percent believe they are doing this at her request. The King has personally committed approx $12 million both for the endowment and to support the meeting.”
“She created this mess and she knows it.”
Why was that meeting so important to Clinton?
Controversial Clinton-Tied Moroccan Mining Firm Supported by Ex-Im Bank | FREE BEACON | MAY 15, 2015
$12 million for Clinton, $92 million for Morocco | HILLARY CLINTON’S CROOKED DEALS WITH MOROCCO; UNDER COVER OF CLINTON FOUNDATION EVENT | EX-IM EXPOSED
Attendees includes executives from OCP and Coca-Cola, as well as the presidents of Rwanda and Tanzania and senior officials from the United Arab Emirates, Egypt and the League of Arab States.
Moroccan cash flows to Clinton Foundation | POLITICO | APR 8, 2015
During her State Department tenure, Clinton visited Morocco, and later launched an ongoing U.S.-Morocco strategic dialogue (the latest installment of which is set to occur in Washington this week), praising the country in 2012 “as a leader and a model.”
Clinton Foundation limits foreign donations | POLITICO | APR 15, 2015
The lavish conference for major American politicians aside, OCP also managed to secure more than $92 million in Export-Import Bank subsidies in 2014 alone.
And, in yet another coincidence, Democrat presidential candidate Hillary Clinton remains a staunch Ex-Im supporter. It was great deal for this company, the
Moroccan government, and the Clintons—but a bad deal for American taxpayers.
King Mohammed reportedly gave money directly to the Clinton Presidential Library. | THE NEW YORK SUN | NOV 22, 2004
The New York Sun reported back in 2004 that King Mohammed VI personally gave between $100,000 – $500,000 to the Clinton Foundation. The record of this donation has since been scrubbed from the Foundation website.
Trafficking Hub | CIA
One of the world’s largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis
Phosphates | Morocco is the number one producer of phosphates and phosphate products.
Sarin, mustard and VX gases are common chemical weapons. Sarin and VX are organophosphate compounds.
German Jailed for Aiding Libya’s Chemical Weapons Program | AP
The United States accused Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi of building the world’s largest underground chemical weapons plant in a mountain at Tarhunah, 40 miles southeast of Tripoli.
In the 1980s, German companies helped build the largest chemical weapons factory in the world. Libya said it was designed to produce drugs, not poison gas.
TLDR – LIBYA
Clinton and Obama overthrew the Libyan government, sending Libya into chaos.
The United Nations imposed an arms embargo on Libya.
We lost track of Gadhafi’s weapons, including chemical weapons. It turns out he had more than we knew about.
Obama and Clinton gave many of them to ISIS using a Qatari arms trafficking network. The rest were up for grabs.
Obama gave Qatar his approval to transfer of 20,000 tons of weapons from Qatar to… Well we’re not exactly sure who still. Basically everyone.
Since then, The Obama Administration has approved over $9 billion in US arms exports to Qatar.
Libya is now a strong hold for ISIS.
ISIS is controlling the human trafficking network in Libya, profiting immensely.
Libya, the country that once acted as the gatekeep for Europe, has become a major immigration hub for emigrants headed to Europe.
Some of Gadhafi’s Sarin gas was taken to Syria.
Obama and Clinton were working behind the scenes to topple Assad’s government in Syria.
Sourced TLDR – LIBYA
February 26, 2011 – The UN imposed sanctions on Libyan authorities, including an arms embargo, asset freeze and travel ban. | UN NEWS
In March of 2011, Reuters reported that the Obama administration had signed secret orders authorizing secret help for rebels fighting against Gadhafi’s government. Fulfillment of such order would be a clear violation of the UN arms embargo. | REUTERS
A rebellion backed by money and military strength from foreign nations waged a successful civil war against the Libyan state. | WORLD POST
FRANCE, UK, ET AL, JOCKEYING IN LIBYA/OIL | WIKILEAKS
US OK’d sending arms to Libya | BOSTONGLOBE
Clinton State Department approved U.S. weapons shipment to Libya despite ban | REUTERS
Libya’s government no longer exists and the country is in chaos. | BBC
Drug And Human Trafficking In ‘Lawless’ Libya Is Funding Isis | IB TIMES
Calm Seas, Libya’s Lawless State Open Door For Migrant Flows | REUTERS
‘Real armed commando’: Police bust ISIS terror cell preparing ‘chemical attack’ in Morocco | RT
Why Is Libya So Lawless? | BBC
ISIS now has a foothold in Libya. | BBC
Top ISIS commanders are taking refuge in Libya. | BBC
Islamic State is planning to use Libya as a gateway to Europe. | TELEGRAPH
Conflict of Interest
Under Clinton’s leadership, the State Department approved $165 billion worth of commercial arms sales to 20 nations whose governments have given money to the Clinton Foundation | IBTIMES
Clinton Charity Received About $12,000,000 from the King of Morocco and Various Moroccan Owned Entities | DAILYCALLER | CNN | HUFFPOST
‘How US Ambassador Chris Stevens May Have Been Linked To Jihadist Rebels In Syria’ | BIZ INSIDER
Muslim Brotherhood Official, Former Clinton Foundation Employee Arrested | FREE BEACON | WA TIMES
LIBYAN LEADER COLONEL MUAMMAR GADDAFI IS DEMANDING £4.1BILLION A YEAR FROM THE EU TO STOP ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION WHICH ‘THREATENS TO TURN EUROPE BLACK’. | DAILY MAIL | AUG 31, 2010
HOW LIBYA KEPT MIGRANTS OUT OF EU – AT ANY COST | THE WEEK UK | APR 5, 2011
Security Council imposes sanctions on Libyan authorities in bid to stem violent repression | UN NEWS CENTRE | FEB 26, 2011
US Names Chris Stevens Liaison to Libyan Opposition | ABC NEWS | MAR 14, 2011
U.S. To Transfer Lead In Libya In ‘Days,’ Obama Says | WBUR NEWS | MAR 22, 2011
Arming Libya rebels not allowed by UN resolutions, legal experts warn US | THE GUARDIAN | MAR 30, 2011
EXCLUSIVE: OBAMA AUTHORIZES SECRET HELP FOR LIBYA REBELS REUTERS MAR 31, 2011
Is General Khalifa Hifter The CIA’s Man In Libya? | BUSINESS INSIDER | APR 22, 2011
Counting Qaddafi’s Heat-Seeking Missiles, and Tracking Them Back to their Sources | NEW YORK TIMES | JUL 26, 2011
FRANCE, UK, ET AL, JOCKEYING IN LIBYA/OIL | WIKILEAKS | SEP 16, 2011
NIGHTMARE IN LIBYA: THOUSANDS OF SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES UNACCOUNTED FOR | ABC | SEP 27, 2011
Tiny Kingdom’s Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern | WALL STREET JOURNAL | OCT 17, 2011
A long 8 months in Libya | CNN | OCT 20, 2011
AMERICAN KILLED IN LIBYA WAS ON INTEL MISSION TO TRACK WEAPONS | ABC | SEP 12, 2012
How US Ambassador Chris Stevens May Have Been Linked To Jihadist Rebels In Syria | BUSINESS INSIDER | OCT 19, 2012
Was Syrian weapons shipment factor in ambassador’s Benghazi visit? | FOX NEWS | OCT 25, 2012
Libyan charity’s ship implicated in Benghazi attack on US ambassador | MALTA TODAY | OCT 31, 2012
There’s A Reason Why All Of The Reports About Benghazi Are So Confusing | BUSINESS INSIDER | NOV 3, 2012
U.S.-APPROVED ARMS FOR LIBYA REBELS FELL INTO JIHADIS’ HANDS | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 5, 2012
US OK’d sending arms to Libya | BOSTON GLOBE | DEC 6, 2012
REPORT: The US Is Openly Sending Heavy Weapons From Libya To Syrian Rebels | BUSINESS INSIDER | DEC 9, 2012
Covert US plan to arm rebels | THE SUNDAY TIMES | DEC 9, 2012
Turkey fights to stem arms smuggling | THE NATIONAL | MAY 27, 2013
In Turnabout, Syria Rebels Get Libyan Weapons | NEW YORK TIMES | JUN 21, 2013
Muslim Brotherhood Official, Former Clinton Foundation Employee Arrested | FREE BEACON | SEP 18, 2013
Muslim Brotherhood official, former Clinton Foundation employee arrested in Cairo | WASHINGTON TIMES | SEP 18, 2013
‘Abandoned’ barrels containing deadly sarin seized in rebel-held Syria | RT | JUL 8, 2014
How Qatar is funding the rise of Islamist extremists | TELEGRAPH | SEP 20, 2014
American Among Nearly 40 Sentenced to Life in Prison for Egypt Protests | NEW YORK TIMES | APR 11, 2015
Was The 2011 Libya Intervention A Mistake | THE WORLD POST | MAR 7, 2015
The king of Morocco, the Clintons and a problem that just won’t go away | POLITICO | MAY 15, 2015
Controversial Clinton-Tied Moroccan Mining Firm Supported by Ex-Im Bank | FREE BEACON | MAY 15, 2015
Defense, State Department Documents Reveal Obama Administration Knew that al Qaeda Terrorists Had Planned Benghazi Attack 10 Days in Advance | JUDICIAL WATCH | MAY 18, 2015
Military intel predicted rise of ISIS in 2012, detailed arms shipments from Benghazi to Syria | FOX NEWS | MAY 18, 2015
Hillary Clinton Knew BACK IN 2011 About US Weapons Shipments from Libya to Syria | GATEWAY PUNDIT | MAY 27, 2015
Clinton’s Man in Morocco | FREE BEACON | JUL 17, 2015
Clinton State Department approved U.S. weapons shipment to Libya despite ban | REUTERS | OCT 20, 2015
Weapons shipments highlight the ambiguous roles of Qatar and Turkey in the fight against Islamic militants | ITALY 24 | DEC 02, 2015
Sarin materials brought via Turkey & mixed in Syrian ISIS camps – Turkish MP to RT | RT | DEC 14, 2015
LIBYAN FORCES SEIZE LAST STRONGHOLD OF ISLAMIC STATE IN SIRTE | LA TIMES
TOP IS COMMANDERS ‘TAKING REFUGE’ IN LIBYA | BBC NEWS | FEB 4, 2016
WHY LIBYA MATTERS – AGAIN | FOREIGN POLICY | FEB 12, 2016
‘Real armed commando’: Police bust ISIS terror cell preparing ‘chemical attack’ in Morocco | RT | FEB 20, 2016
Seymour Hersh Says Hillary Approved Sending Libya’s Sarin to Syrian Rebels | STRATEGIC CULTURE | APR 28, 2016
U.N. approves high seas crackdown on Libya arms smuggling | REUTERS | JUN 14, 2016
DRUG AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN ‘LAWLESS’ LIBYA IS FUNDING ISIS | IB TIMES | JULY 16, 2016
US air raids in Libya: Who really benefits? | RT | AUG 2, 2016
LAWLESS AND CHAOTIC LIBYA IS SOURCE OF EUROPE’S MIGRANT CRISIS | SKY NEWS | AUG 30, 2016
CALM SEAS, LIBYA’S LAWLESS STATE OPEN DOOR FOR MIGRANT FLOWS | REUTERS | AUG 31, 2016
WHY IS LIBYA SO LAWLESS? | BBC NEWS | SEP 14, 2016
OBAMA DOJ DROPS CHARGES AGAINST ALLEGED BROKER OF LIBYAN WEAPONS | POLITICO | OCT 4, 2016
Hillary’s Benghazi Coverup Threatens Terror Prosecutions | NATIONAL REVIEW | OCT 7, 2016
Arms dealer says Clinton and Obama accidentally gave guns to ISIS, Al Qaeda and Benghazi attackers – then tried to scapegoat him for their screw-up with failed $10m felony case | DAILY MAIL | OCT 12, 2016
Libya’s UN-backed government and central bank to work together | THE NATIONAL | JAN 1, 2017
A closer look the WMDs & Qatar’s ‘help’
Nightmare In Libya: Thousands Of Surface-To-Air Missiles Unaccounted For | ABC | SEP 27, 2011
The White House announced today it planned to expand a program to secure and destroy Libya’s huge stockpile of dangerous surface-to-air missiles, following an ABC News report that large numbers of them continue to be stolen from unguarded military warehouses.
“I think the probability of al Qaeda being able to smuggle some of the stinger-like missiles out of Libya is probably pretty high,” said Richard Clarke, former White House counterterrorism advisor and now a consultant to ABC News.
Just so you understand, the White House announcement came after the ABC News report.
‘Libya’s Cache of Toxic Arms All Destroyed’ | NYT | FEB 2, 2014
Since November, Libyan contractors trained in Germany and Sweden have worked to destroy the weapons in a region where extremists linked to Al Qaeda are gaining greater influence. The last artillery shell was destroyed on Jan. 26, officials said.
Libyan officials announced the discovery in November 2011 and February 2012 of two hidden caches of mustard, or nearly two tons, that had not been declared by Colonel Qaddafi’s government That brought the total declared amount of chemical to 26.3 tons.
Unlike the majority of Libya’s mustard agents, which were stored in large, bulky containers, the new caches were already armed and loaded.
As ISIS closed in, a race to remove chemical-weapon precursors in Libya | WA POST | SEP 13, 2016
While some precursor materials were destroyed in 2015, nearly 500 tons of dual-use, toxic industrial chemicals remained at Ruwagha.
In mid-July, Libyan officials piled about 20 barrels onto a small convoy of trucks and drove them across the desert to the coastal city of Misrata.
In late August, the materials were loaded at the port of Misrata onto a Danish ship bound for the German city of Münster.
Using $45 million from the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which has helped rid the former Soviet Union of thousands of nuclear weapons since the end of the Cold War, the Pentagon and its Defense Threat Reduction Agency tapped the Parsons Corporation, a construction firm based in Pasadena, Calif., to work with Libya to oversee the rebuilding and safeguarding of the Libyan disposal site, which had been ransacked during the civil war.
Syrian Chemical Weapons Elimination Project | PARSONS
Dynasafe equipment destroys Libyan chemical weapons | DYNASAFE
In 2011, Obama’s approved Qatar to transfer 20,000 tons of weapons to various militias in Libya. Most weapons remain unaccounted for, but many ended up with radical Islamist groups in Libya and Syria. | NYT
Qatar’s planes landed in Misrata too | TELEGRAPH
Some of these planes were Boeing C-17 Globemasters. Qatar also used these planes during Haiti relief. (http://archive.is/xRHls)
Qatari flights continued even after the fall of Tripoli | WSJ
Between APRIL AND AUGUST, at least 18 cargo planes left Qatar for Libya, filled with assault rifles, rocket-propelled grenade launchers and other small arms, as well as military uniforms and vehicles, say people familiar with the situation.
With the blessing of Western intelligence agencies, Qatar flew at least 18 weapons shipments in all to anti-Gadhafi rebel forces in 2012, the majority directly to militias run by Islamist leaders.
About a dozen other Qatari-funded shipments came via Sudan, according to previously undisclosed Libyan intelligence documents.
OBAMA APPROVED THIS, IN CLEAR VIOLATION OF A UNITED NATIONS ARMS EMBARGO.
Weapons were sent to ISIS in Syria via Turkey | BIZ INSIDER
Obama and Clinton understood that the situation in Libya would become unstable if the government was toppled. They wanted to start a chain reaction that would lead to the fall of Assad’s government in Syria.
Military intel predicted rise of ISIS in 2012, detailed arms shipments from Benghazi to Syria | FOX
Hillary Clinton Knew BACK IN 2011 About US Weapons Shipments from Libya to Syria | GW PUNDIT
Weapons shipments highlight the ambiguous roles of Qatar and Turkey in the fight against Islamic militants | ITALY 24
After the collapse of the Libyan government, Gadhafi’s arms stockpiles were raided, and arsenals of weapons also found their way into the hands of Islamist rebels in Syria. | NYT
‘Abandoned’ barrels containing deadly sarin seized in rebel-held Syria | RT
How did islamists get sarin gas?
Sarin materials brought via Turkey & mixed in Syrian ISIS camps | RT
Qatar cannot be trusted.
EAGER TO ‘HELP’ | QATAR BECOMES 1ST ARAB COUNTRY TO FLY OVER LIBYA | WASHINGTON TIMES | MAR 25, 2011
“TRIPOLI, Libya (AP) — Tiny Qatar became the first Arab country to fly combat missions over Libya on Friday after NATO agreed to take command of the no-fly zone part of air operations against Moammar Gadhafi’s regime.”
QATAR’S EMIR VISITS GAZA, PLEDGING $400,000,000 TO HAMAS | NYT | OCT 23, 2012
U.S. APPROVED ARMS FOR LIBYA REBELS FELL INTO JIHADIS’ HANDS | NYT | DEC 5, 2012
WASHINGTON — The Obama administration secretly gave its blessing to arms shipments to Libyan rebels from Qatar last year, but American officials later grew alarmed as evidence grew that Qatar was turning some of the weapons over to Islamic militants, according to United States officials and foreign diplomats.
THESE ARE THE WEAPONS THAT BARACK OBAMA AUTHORIZED.
QATAR ISLAMIC CHARITY OFFICIALS GAVE MILLIONS TO AL-QAEDA, U.S. SAYS | WA POST | DEC 22, 2013
FORMER HEAD OF HUMAN RIGHTS CHARITY ACCUSED OF LEADING DOUBLE LIFE AS TERRORIST FUNDRAISER | TELEGRAPH | SEP 20, 2014
“Abdul Rahman al-Nuaimi accused of sitting at centre of web of funding for al-Qaeda affiliates in countries ranging from Yemen to Syria, to Iraq to Somalia.”
“Mr Nuaimi, 60, has previously worked as a professor of history at Qatar University and even as president of the Qatar Football Association.”
“A leaked cable from the US Embassy in Doha in 2007 describes him as an “Islamist hardliner” and states that he was briefly jailed in 2000, for criticising the wife of Qatar’s then ruler for her role in public life.” | WIKILEAKS 07DOHA709_a
He also was a founding board member of the Eid bin Mohammed Al Thani Charitable Association and a past board member of Qatar Islamic Bank.
EMAIL CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN JOHN PODESTA & HILLARY CLINTON ACKNOWLEDGING QATAR’S AND SAUDI ARABIA’S INVOLVEMENT IN TERROR FUNDING | WIKILEAKS | AUG 29, 2014
“While this military/para-military operation is moving forward, we need to use our diplomatic and more traditional intelligence assets to bring pressure on the governments of Qatar and Saudi Arabia, which are providing clandestine financial and logistic support to ISIL and other radical Sunni groups in the region.”
“The Qataris and Saudis will be put in a position of balancing policy between their ongoing competition to dominate the Sunni world and the consequences of serious U.S. pressure. By the same token, the threat of similar, realistic U.S. operations will serve To assist moderate forces in Libya, Lebanon, and even Jordan, where insurgents are increasingly fascinated by the ISIL success in Iraq.”
Hillary Clinton’s response:
Agree but there may be opportunities as the Iraqi piece improves.
Also, any idea whose fighters attacked Islamist positions in Tripoli, Libya? Worth analyzing for future purposes.
Qatar’s Support of Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far | NY TIMES | SEP 7, 2014
HOW QATAR IS FUNDING THE RISE OF ISLAMIST EXTREMISTS | TELEGRAPH UK | SEP 21, 2014
Western officials have tracked the Qatari arms flights as they land in the city of Misrata, about 100 miles east of Tripoli, where the Islamist militias have their stronghold. Even after the fall of the capital and the removal of Libya’s government, Qatar is “still flying in weapons straight to Misrata airport”, said a senior Western official.
GOVERNMENT DONATION TO MUSLIM CHARITIES FORUM DENOUNCED AS “MADNESS” | TELEGRAPH | SEP 23, 2014
A government department donated £18,000 to a charity coalition with ties to the Muslim Brotherhood, a group whose activities Britain has vowed to curtail following concerns over their extremist links in the Middle East, it has been claimed.
The Case Against Qatar | FOREIGN POLICY VOICE | SEP 30, 2014
The tiny, gas-rich emirate has pumped tens of millions of dollars through obscure funding networks to hard-line Syrian rebels and extremist Salafists, building a foreign policy that punches above its weight. After years of acquiescing — even taking advantage of its ally’s meddling — Washington may finally be punching back.
BANKER WHO FINANCED 9/11 MASTERMIND NOW FUNDING TERRORISTS IN SYRIA AND IRAQ | TELEGRAPH | OCT 4, 2014
Khalifa Muhammad Turki al-Subaiy – a Qatari citizen who was said to have provided ‘financial support’ for Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – was jailed for terrorist offences in 2008 but released after only six months.A terrorist financier from Qatar is at the centre of a jihadi network linking him to al-Qaeda fighters in Syria and Iraq.
AL-QAEDA TERROR FINANCIER WORKED FOR QATARI GOVERNMENT | TELEGRAPH | OCT 12, 2014
An al-Qaeda money man was employed by the Qatari government despite being officially designated a terrorist by the US.
Salim Hasan Khalifa Rashid al-Kuwari channelled hundreds of thousands of dollars to al-Qaeda through a terrorist network while working in the Gulf state’s Ministry of Interior.
STATE DEPARTMENT DEFENDS PARTNERSHIP WITH HAMAS-SUPPORTING QATAR | CNS NEWS | DEC 2, 2014
US CONGRESS INFORMED OF QATARI “CHARITIES” FINANCING TERRORISM | DEMOCRATIC CONGRESSMAN BRAD SHERMAN | DEC 10, 2014
U.S. ALLY QATAR SHELTERS JIHADI MONEYMEN | THE DAILY BEAST | DEC 10, 2014
The world’s most two-faced nation fights ISIS while letting terrorists raise money. Why won’t Washington stop them?
“Abdulrahman al-Nuaymi, a Qatari who has been accused by the U.S. Treasury Department of transferring millions of dollars to al Qaeda affiliates in Iraq, Syria, Somalia, and Yemen, was described by the former emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al Thani, as an “old friend” who helped to keep him in touch with “men of Islamic political thought,” according to the Arab press. Those thinkers included a former mentor of Osama bin Laden, Abulmajeed al-Zindani, and the founder of Palestine’s Hamas movement, Ahmed Yassin.”
Qatar Islamic Bank (QIB)
Should Qatar be Judged by the Company they Keep? | CONSORTIUM AGAINST TERRORISM FINANCING | SEP 10, 2015
A 2015 report by the Consortium Against Terrorist Finance (CATF) called attention on Qatar Islamic Bank’s correspondents claiming that some of them “have controversial histories of affiliation with or support of terrorist or extremist activities.”
Qatar Islamic Bank’s (QIB) controversial correspondents include:
Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) | WIKIPEDIA despite evidence suggesting they have also engaged in terrorist financing.
The presence of IBBL among QIB’s financial partners is not surprising given that Al Rajhi Bank had a 37% direct ownership in IBBL.
Moneyjihad reported that in 2011 “the Bangladeshi home ministry intelligence revealed that 8 percent of the bank’s profits were diverted as corporate zakat to support jihad in Bangladesh.”
Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $390,000
2015 | Islami Bank Bangladesh | $300,000
2016 | Islami Bank Bangladesh | $90,000
Hackers behind $81 MILLION cyber heist – one of the world’s biggest ever – from Bangladesh bank will NEVER be caught as they are ‘untraceable’ | DAILY MAIL | MAY 25, 2016
In February $81million (£55million) vanished from Bangladesh central bank
The money was transferred to bank accounts in Manila, Philippines
Much of it was then laundered at casinos in Manila
They only succeeded in transferring the $81million, all of which ended up in accounts with the Rizal Commercial Banking Corp (RCBC) in the Philippines.
No accusations, just ideas.
CLINTON KNEW ALL ALONG
TERRORIST FINANCE: ACTION REQUEST FOR SENIOR LEVEL ENGAGEMENT ON TERRORISM FINANCE | WIKILEAKS 09STATE131801_a
While the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) takes seriously the threat of terrorism within Saudi Arabia, it has been an ongoing challenge to persuade Saudi officials to treat terrorist financing emanating from Saudi Arabia as a strategic priority.
Saudi Arabia remains a critical financial support base for al-Qa’ida, the Taliban, LeT, and other terrorist groups, including Hamas. Riyadh has taken only limited action to disrupt fundraising for the UN 1267-listed Taliban and LeT-groups that are also aligned with al-Qa’ida and focused on undermining stability in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
While the GOK has demonstrated a willingness to take action when attacks target Kuwait, it has been less inclined to take action against Kuwait-based financiers and facilitators plotting attacks outside of Kuwait. Al-Qa’ida and other groups continue to exploit Kuwait both as a source of funds and as a key transit point.
United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based donors have provided financial support to a variety of terrorist groups, including al-Qa’ida, the Taliban, LeT and other terrorist groups, including Hamas.
Pakistan’s intermittent support to terrorist groups and militant organizations threatens to undermine regional security and endanger U.S. national security objectives in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Qatar has adopted a largely passive approach to cooperating with the U.S. against terrorist financing. Qatar’s overall level of CT cooperation with the U.S. is considered the worst in the region. Al-Qaida, the Taliban, UN-1267 listed LeT, and other terrorist groups exploit Qatar as a fundraising locale. Although Qatar’s security services have the capability to deal with direct threats and occasionally have put that capability to use, they have been hesitant to act against known terrorists out of concern for appearing to be aligned with the U.S. and provoking reprisals.
Why don’t news releases from the Defense Security Cooperation Agency make note of this?
FOREIGN MILITARY SALE REQUEST NOTIFCATION | DSCA | JUL 12, 2012
“WASHINGTON, July 12, 2012 – The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress July 10 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Qatar for 24 AH-64D APACHE Block III LONGBOW Attack Helicopters and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $3.0 billion.”
“This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of a friendly country that has been, and continues to be, an important force for political and economic progress in the Middle East.”
“The helicopters will provide a long-term defensive and offensive capability to the Qatari peninsula as well as enhance the protection of key oil and gas infrastructure and platforms …”
The prime contractors will be The Boeing Company, Lockheed Martin Corporation, General Electric, Longbow Limited Liability Corporation, and Raytheon Corporation.
“There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale.”
FOREIGN MILITARY SALE REQUEST NOTIFCATION | DSCA | NOV 5, 2012
“WASHINGTON, November 5, 2012 – The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress November 2 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Qatar for two Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Fire Units and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $6.5 billion.”
“This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of a friendly country that has been and continues to be an important force for political stability and economic progress in the Middle East.”
“There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale at this time.”
FOREIGN MILITARY SALE REQUEST NOTIFCATION | DSCA | NOV 7, 2012
“WASHINGTON, November 7, 2012 – The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress Nov. 6 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Qatar for the sale of 11 PATRIOT Configuration-3 Modernized Fire Units and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $9.9 billion.”
“This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by improving the security of an important ally which has been, and continues to be, a force for political stability and economic progress in the Middle East. This sale is consistent with U.S. initiatives to provide key allies in the region with modern systems that will enhance interoperability with U.S. forces and increase security.”
The prime contractors will be Raytheon Corporation and Lockheed-Martin.
“There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale.”
Definition of offset agreement | FINANCIAL TIMES | LEXICON
“An offset agreement is a type of side deal, sometimes best described as a sweetener. This is an agreement between two or more parties that provides additional benefits and is ancillary to another negotiated contract.”
“The deal is between a government and company, often a defence company but it can also be used in big civil deals for items such as infrastructure and transport. The company ($$ COUNTRY-> CLINTON
“Companies (and the foreign countries in this case) do this because it boosts their chance to win lucrative government contracts, particularly in developing countries.”
“A company’s offset obligation is usually worth 50-100 per cent of the value of the contract and can be direct or indirect. Direct offsets are linked to the original defence contact. Companies often agree to transfer relevant technological knowhow or use local suppliers to build the equipment they are selling to the government.”
Because stolen goods are riskier business, the Clintons’ average rate probably varies, depending on the nature of the deal. We’ll say about 5% on a $100,000,000 Export-Import Bank Deal & maybe 0.5% + on billion dollar weapons deals.
The Clintons have brought us down to the level of a banana republic.
APPROVED | LOCKHEED MARTIN, RAYTHEON DEAL | DSCA
The Pentagon approved the sale to Qatar of $9.9 billion worth of Patriot fire units, radars, and various Raytheon and Lockheed missiles in November 2012.
In March of 2014, Qatar confirmed the purchase of $9.9 billion Patriot missile defense system built by Raytheon equipped with PAC-3 missiles made by Lockheed; advanced daytime, high-definition sensors and radars for Apache helicopters; and Javelin missiles built by a Lockheed-Raytheon joint venture.
Qatar buys helicopters, missiles in $23 billion arms deals | REUTERS | MAR 27, 2014
Qatar announced contracts worth about $23 billion on Thursday to buy attack helicopters, guided missiles, tankers and other weapons from Boeing Co, Airbus, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon.
Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Longbow, General Electric Deal | DEFENSE SECURITY COOPERATION AGENCY
The Defense Security Cooperation Agency, the U.S. body which oversees foreign arms sales, had notified lawmakers in July 2012 of a possible sale of Apache helicopters to Qatar. Estimated contract value $3 billion.
In March of 2014, Qatar announced that Boeing was awarded the contract for 24 Apache Attack Helicopters. They will be fitted with Longbow radar equipment made by a joint venture of Lockheed and Northrop Grumman Corp. General Electric is also among the prime contractors.
These sales were approved. There are dozens more, similar to these, for other countries recognized as host to terrorists.
What else is Qatar doing with all that money? Investing in art and foreign business. Influence.
Qatar has been buying up about $1 billion worth of art annually
Why would a hardline Wahhabi government splash out billions of dollars to secular Western artists?
Qatari Riches Are Buying Art World Influence | NY TIMES
Qataris have used it to secure a host of undisputed modern and contemporary masterpieces by Francis Bacon, Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons.
Until Qatar’s 2007 purchase, for example, the most expensive Rothko ever sold at auction (“Homage to Matisse”) had drawn $22 million in 2005, less than one-third of the price Qatar paid.
$250 million for Cézanne’s “Card Players” from the family of shipping magnate George Embiciros
What Are The Top 10 Al-Thani Family Art Acquisitions? | ARTNET
10. Damien Hirst, Lullaby Spring, $19 million | A pill cabinet with thousands of pills was purchased in the spring of 2007 at Sotheby’s.
Qatar’s oil boom created the world’s most extravagant art scene—and also led to its demise | QUARTZ | AUG 14, 2016
“Damien Hirst, Jeff Koons, and Naomi Campbell made their way through the VIP crowd, past the fleet of Bentleys, and toward the waiting helicopter.”
“Hirst—the English artist best known for his multi-million dollar sculpture of a shark floating in formaldehyde—was in town on official business. Qatar Museums (QM) had ponied up over $20 million to fund a retrospective of his work and commission a series of pieces. He had spent the last hour showing QM’s chairperson, Sheikha Mayassa (who is also the daughter of the Emir), around the exhibition, pointing out exactly how her country’s money had been spent. The other two were just tagging along, presumably. Besides, the after-party sounded promising: QM had organized a pop-up Prada shop in the middle of the desert, and guests were being ferried there via private helicopter.”
“As the rotor blades sprang to life and the unlikely trio was lifted into the sky, the South-Asian laborers working nearby stopped to watch the spectacle. They were being paid $11 a day to swing pickaxes in the desert sun and lay the groundwork for the new Qatar National Museum.”
The nation’s stark wealth disparity was also a source of tension. While QM’s offices offered panoramic views of Doha’s futuristic skyline, you only had to look to the streets below to see the South-Asian laborers who had made those skyscrapers a reality. Since the Qatari population barely numbers 200,000 and lacked the specialist skills—and inclination—to do any of this grunt work, plane loads of migrant workers started arriving to make up the shortfall. These were guys who had been shipped over with promises of big money only to have their contracts rewritten, their passports confiscated, and their wages slashed before being pointed toward the nearest construction site.
South Asia ‘shares blame’ for Gulf migrant abuses | ASIAN REVIEW | JUN 30, 2016
Amid growing concern about Qatar’s treatment of South Asian migrants building the infrastructure for the 2022 soccer World Cup, activists are warning that labor abuses are widespread throughout the Gulf, and that workers’ home countries share the blame.
Concerns have been raised over working conditions with Emir Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani, Qatar’s authoritarian ruler.
Amnesty International, a human rights group, said that almost all of more than 200 laborers it interviewed on two World Cup-related construction sites in Doha were being exploited by their employers.
However, Qatar is neither the top Gulf destination for South Asian migrant workers nor the worst alleged violator of their rights. Indian embassies received more than 7,000 labor complaints from Gulf countries in the 11 months to November 2015, mostly from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj told parliament in New Delhi in December.
Qatar: The Shape of Tomorrow | BLOUINART | JUN 19, 2016
Qatar has taken a keen interest in Jeff Koons, and not just his artwork either. A frequent guest of the Qatari royal family, Jeff Koons has played a major role in the development of their billion dollar Museum of Modern Art.
Distinguished Artists to Join Curators, Art Collectors and Museum Directors at the New York Times ‘Art For Tomorrow’ Conference | NY TIMES | JAN 20, 2016
Artist Marina Abramović, Art Basel global director Marc Spiegler, UNESCO’s Francesco Bandarin among diverse mix of art-world leaders to appear in Doha March 12-15
The invitation-only event, organized under the patronage of Qatar Museums, will expand its exploration of the myriad global influences shaping the creative infrastructure of nations and cities. The conference will be introduced by Her Excellency Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, chairwoman, Qatar Museums, and Arthur O. Sulzberger, Jr., chairman and publisher, The New York Times Company.
Marina Abramović | artist
Jeff Koons | artist
Francesco Bandarin | assistant director general for culture, UNESCO
Dakis Joannou | collector
Jeffrey Deitch | curator and gallerist, former director, MOCA
Gail Lord | co-president, Lord Culture Resources
Sotheby’s and QNB are the headline sponsors for the Art for Tomorrow conference. Qatar Tourism Authority is the destination sponsor. The host sponsors are Jaidah Group and W Hotels.
Qatar: The Shape of Tomorrow | JUN 19, 2016
Doha: Plastic and ready-made, it’s a city built for Jeff Koons.
“I love the readymade because of the idea of acceptance,” Koons tells me, “that everything is in play and that everything is perfect in its own being.” It’s little wonder that he is attracted to Qatar. The mini-state’s boom mirrors the artist’s own rise to fame. Two decades ago, Doha had no skyline. It was just a smattering of one- or two-story edifices on the desert coast.
In Qatar, Koons could never exhibit “Made in Heaven,” his collaboration with the Italian pornography star Ilona; the racy sculptures ”Woman in Tub” and “Fait d’Hiver” wouldn’t fly, either.
“My idea of participating and of art having a moral responsibility, I think, comes from my experience of growing up,” he said, “in that first you have a concept of self and of transcendence of the self, and then you become aware of your place within the community and your responsibility to the community, and that just gets played out on larger scales later in life, depending upon your desire for participation.”
This legitimately sounds like someone who was abused as a child, accepted it, justified it, and repeated it as an adult.
Next year, Marina Abramović will conduct a series of lectures and performances, and exhibit at Al Riwaq.
Jeff Koons donated contributed to Correct the Record | FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION
Jeff Koons donated $50,000 USD to correct the record, a political hit squad founded by David Brock, a close associate of John Podesta and James Alefantis.
Who is Jeff Koons? | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN
The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children held its first Board of Directors meeting in May 1998. It was officially launched in April 1999 by Hillary Clinton, then-First Lady of the United States, and Cherie Blair, wife of British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ICMEC HISTORY / FOUNDING
Jeff Koons | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | DIRECTOR
Dakis Joannou | Joannou & Paraskevaides | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | DIRECTOR (FORMER)
Joannou & Paraskevaides is a Cypriot international building, civil and electromechanical engineering contractor with an involvement in the energy (oil and gas) and industrial sectors operating in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and Asia.
J&P has built several airports in the Middle East, including Oman, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan & UAE.
They also build roads, tunnels, bridges, islands etc.
The company was founded by his father Stelios Ioannou along with his partner George Paraskevaides.
Mr. Paraskevaides founded the Cyprus Kidney Association, the Surgical and Transplant Foundation and the Cyprus Heart Association.
Ambassador Maura Harty | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN – CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER
Former Ambassador to Romania under Bill Clinton
Why is she so obsessed with foreign adoptions? | WIKILEAKS 05BUCHAREST1173_a
The Board of Directors (past & present)
Clinton Foundation Donors Got Weapons Deals From Hillary Clinton’s State Department | INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TIMES | MAY 26, 2015
Bahrain’s Prince Got Audience With Clinton After Donating $32 Million To Her Foundation | THE DAILY CALLER | AUG 22, 2016
Newly released Department of State documents reveal that the Crown Prince of Bahrain was given an audience with then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton after he donated $32 million to her foundation.
Bahrain’s Crown Prince Salman had to go through the Clinton Foundation in order to set up a meeting with Clinton after the former Secretary of State declined to meet after official requests were made.
Salman was a major donor to the Clinton Foundation, having pledged millions to the Clinton Global Initiative through the Crown Prince’s International Scholarship Program (CRISP). By 2010, he had given $32 million to the initiative.
Emails Show Clinton Foundation Donor Reached Out To Hillary Clinton Before Arms Export Boost | INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TIMES | AUG 22, 2016
Emails just released by the State Department appear to show Clinton Foundation officials brokering a meeting between then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and a top military leader of Bahrain, a Middle Eastern country that is a major foundation donor.
Soon after the correspondence about a meeting, **Clinton’s State Department significantly increased arms export authorizations to the country’s autocratic government, even as that nation moved to crush pro-democracy protests.
Colonial Germ Warfare | COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG JOURNAL
Biological warfare waged against Native Americans | Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac’s Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America | David Dixon | 2005
1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic | WIKIPEDIA PAGE | FEB 12, 2017
Did the U.S. Army Distribute Smallpox Blankets to Indians? Fabrication and Falsification in Ward Churchill’s Genocide Rhetoric | Thomas Brown
“Churchill has habitually committed multiple counts of research misconduct–specifically, fabrication and falsification. While acknowledging the ‘politicization’ of the topic and evidence of other outrages committed against Native American tribes in times past, this study examines the different versions of the “smallpox blankets” episode published by Churchill between 1994 and 2003.”
“Confirmed: Ward Churchill is a Fraud, Part 1” | FRONT PAGE MAG | JUN 8, 2005
“We do not find academic misconduct with respect to his general claim that the U.S. Army deliberately spread smallpox to Mandan Indians at Fort Clark in 1837, using infected blankets. Early accounts of what was said by Indians involved in that situation and certain native oral traditions provide some basis for that interpretation.” | UC BOULDER | MAY 9, 2006
But you’re still fired because you didn’t cite your sources properly.
A Lesson From the Churchill Inquiry | INSIDE HIGHER ED | JUN 30, 2006
Jon Wiener writes that Colorado deserves praise for its investigation — in large part because it included the context, not just the charges.
After writing this piece about the US Army poisoning natives, Ward Churchill was viscously attacked by swarm of left-wing campus elites. Why such vitriol?
We may never know.
MISSION TO SOMALIA; Bush Declares Goal in Somalia to ‘Save Thousands’ | NY TIMES | DEC 5, 1992
WASHINGTON, Dec. 4— President Bush ordered troops into Somalia today on a mission to “save thousands of innocents,” as the Pentagon outlined an operation that will leave soldiers and marines in Somalia well into the Administration of President Bill Clinton.
Mr. Bush gathered broad support for the intervention from top leaders of Congress, from other world leaders and from Mr. Clinton himself, and then went on television at midday to announce an operation that thrusts the United States into a new post-cold-war role as a military force on behalf of humanitarian, not strategic ends.
But the bulk of the force will be American. Administration officials expressed hope that the United States could begin to hand off some of the country to the existing United Nations peacekeeping operation before Mr. Clinton is inaugurated on Jan. 20, but it was clear that the new President would inherit an ongoing military operation.
Defense Secretary Dick Cheney and Gen. Colin L. Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said at a news briefing that American support troops and marines stationed on ships off shore would be left on duty for an undetermined period to act as a deterrent to Somalia’s warring clans even after most of the American expeditionary force was withdrawn.
“Our mission is humanitarian,” he said, but commanders will “take whatever military action is necessary to safeguard the lives of our troops and the lives of Somalia’s people.”
General Powell later said that includes the right to stage pre-emptive strikes against threats to American forces.
Did the U.S. Help Saddam Acquire Biological Weapons | FAS | SEP 20, 2002
Colin Powell Congressional testimony that got us into Iraq | CNN | FEB 6, 2003
Black Hawk Down | OCT 3-4, 1993
18 U.S. soldiers were killed and 73 wounded in an attempt to apprehend warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid at the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia. The American public was appalled at the deaths and support for American involvement in African affairs suffered as a result.
It was against this backdrop that the Rwandan Genocide began.
Rwandan Genocide | APR 6, 1994 –
On April 6, 1994, Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the President of Burundi, were both killed when their plane was shot down on approach to Kigali Airport in Rwanda. Responsibility for the assassinations has never been clearly established, however, the resulting chaos was the catalyst for the masacre of Tutsis at the hands of Rwanda’s Hutu majority.
Ambassador Bushnell warned the Clinton Administration in advance
Bushnell, who had been visiting the area just weeks before, released a memorandum immediately following the assassinations.
In it, she predicted widespread violence and the military take-over of the Rwandan government and urged the U.S. government to take action to maintain order.
Partly as a result of the Somali incident, the U.S. government chose not to heed Bushnell’s recommendations, and on the next day, April 7, the Rwandan Genocide began when several Tutsi government officials and moderate Hutu Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana were killed by Hutu militias.
Clinton did nothing.
Rwanda genocide: 100 days of slaughter | BBC | APR 7, 2014
In just 100 days in 1994, some 800,000 people were slaughtered in Rwanda by ethnic Hutu extremists. They were targeting members of the minority Tutsi community, as well as their political opponents, irrespective of their ethnic origin.
How was the genocide carried out? Systematically.
With meticulous organisation.
Lists of government opponents were handed out to militias who went and killed them, along with all of their families.
Neighbours killed neighbours and some husbands even killed their Tutsi wives, saying they would be killed if they refused.
At the time, ID cards had people’s ethnic group on them, so militias set up roadblocks where Tutsis were slaughtered, often with machetes which most Rwandans kept around the house.
Thousands of Tutsi women were taken away and kept as sex slaves.
Did anyone try to stop it? No.
The UN and Belgium had forces in Rwanda but the UN mission was not given a mandate to stop the killing.
The US was determined not to get involved in another African conflict.
The Belgians and most UN peacekeepers pulled out after 10 Belgian soldiers were killed.
The French, who were allies of the Hutu government, sent a force to set up a supposedly safe zone but were accused of not doing enough to stop the slaughter in that area.
Rwanda’s current president has accused France of taking part in the massacres – a charge denied by Paris.
How did it end? Paul Kagame – The Global Elite’s Favorite Strongman
The well-organised Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), backed by Uganda’s army, gradually seized more territory, until 4 July, when its forces marched into the capital, Kigali.
RPF leader and President, Paul Kagame, has been hailed for overseeing rapid economic growth in the tiny country. He has also tried to turn Rwanda into a technological hub and is very active on Twitter.
His critics say he does not tolerate dissent and several opponents have met unexplained deaths.
Vision 2020 | MINECOFINdotGOV
Vision 2020 is a Government development program in Rwanda, launched in 2000 by Rwandan president Paul Kagame.
Its main objective is transforming the country into a knowledge-based middle-income country, thereby reducing poverty, health problems and making the nation united and democratic.
The programme consists of a list of goals which the government aims to achieve before the year 2020:
An efficient state
Skilled human capital, including education, health and information technology
A vibrant private sector
A world-class physical infrastructure
Modern agriculture and livestock
RWANDA PUSHING FOR “CLEAN AND GREEN” ENERGY | WIKILEAKS 09 KIGALI531_a | AUG 27, 2009
The Government of Rwanda (GOR) is pressing forward with development of diversified renewable energy sources to satisfy the majority of its power generation needs by 2012.
MININFRA Donor Coordinator Eva Paul told Wadelton Rwanda is on track to achieve its energy goals and that “the political will is there.” United States-based Contour Global is working to extract methane gas accumulating in Lake Kivu.
Construction of two new hydroelectric plants will add 37MW to the national grid within three years. Additionally, the governments of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi and Tanzania are planning additional multinational hydro projects in Rusizi and Rusumo, she said.
NGOs and development agencies such as USAID are assisting the GOR electrify off-grid health clinics and administrative centers with solar power.
American entrepreneurs are taking the lead in providing solar power solutions to rural communities. Sam Dargan, CEO of Great Lakes Solar Energy, told Wadelton he was interested in providing solar appliances to rural communities–not for social or conservation reasons–but because it was profitable.
Josh Kefauver, COO of United States-based Manna Energy, is working with the GOR to equip rural communities and secondary schools with solar powered water purifiers using ultraviolet light to kill harmful bacteria.
Dargan, citing an example of donor-provided solar powered cell phone chargers to health care workers, said such practices made it more difficult for him to sell similar products for a profit. Free donor-provided resources have inhibited private sector investment in renewable energy, he stated.
RWANDAN VIEWS ON CLIMATE CHANGE | WIKILEAKS 09KIGALI830_a | DEC 4, 2009
The government of Rwanda (GOR) is aggressively promoting “clean and green” energy (Ref A), conservation and reforestation.
The impacts of climate change are cross-cutting and have affected agriculture, health, energy and degradation of eco-systems. The report estimates that the risk to the rural population from malaria could increase by 150 percent by 2050, adding an additional economic burden to the country.
The Director General of the Rwanda Environmental Management Authority (REMA) Dr. Rose Mukankomeje promoted early warning systems, introducing of crop species resistant to environmental stress, developing renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources and pursuing aggressive reforestation and afforestation programs.
On October 28 the GOR approved a U.S. private sector-sponsored biofuels project in eastern Rwanda. Run by American-owned Eco-Fuel Global and British-owned Eco-Fuel Positive, the project will develop land for production of jatropha and build vegetable oil extraction facilities to process jatropha oil and jatropha seed cake (used as fertilizer).
Still among the poorest countries in the world, Rwanda would benefit from more flexible assistance programs and active private sector investment supported by OPIC, EXIM and USTDA (as in the case of Contour Global’s methane and Eco-Fuel Global’s biofuels). This could make the climate change challenge a win-win for Rwandan and American investors by encouraging more investment and mutually beneficial trade.
In 1996, Prudence Bushnell was appointed ambassador to Kenya.
Stationed at the US Embassy in Nairobi, she used her office to push Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi to institute democratic reforms and to root out corruption in his government, a major drag on Kenya’s economy.
Bushnell soon became alarmed at the vulnerability of the U.S. embassy compound to attack.
Before Bombings, Omens and Fears | NEW YORK TIMES | JAN 9, 1999
In the spring of 1998, Prudence Bushnell, the U.S. ambassador to Kenya, sent an emotional letter to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright begging for the secretary’s personal help.
Ms. Bushnell, a career diplomat, had been fighting for months for a more secure embassy in the face of mounting terrorist threats and a warning that she was the target of an assassination plot.
The department had repeatedly refused to grant her request, citing a lack of money. But that kind of response, she wrote Albright, was “endangering the lives of embassy personnel.”
The CIA and the FBI had been amassing increasingly ominous and detailed clues about potential threats in Kenya, officials said. But the State Department bureaucracy still dismissed Ms. Bushnell.
Albright took no action. And three months later, on Aug. 7, the American Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya were simultaneously attacked with car bombs. Twelve American diplomats and more than 200 Africans were killed in Kenya.
The State Department has acknowledged that Ms. Bushnell raised questions about security before the bombing. But a close examination of events in the year before the assaults, based on interviews with officials throughout the U.S. government, shows her concerns were more intense, more well-founded, more specific, and more forcefully expressed than has previously been known.
The CIA repeatedly told State Department officials in Washington and in the Kenya Embassy that there was an active terrorist cell in Kenya connected to Osama bin Laden, the Saudi exile who is accused of masterminding the attack.
The CIA and FBI investigated at least three terrorist threats in Nairobi in the year before the bombing and took one seriously enough to send a counter-terrorism team from CIA headquarters. The agency ultimately concluded that threat was unfounded, but some officials believe the inquiry was botched, and the agency’s inspector general is investigating how it was handled.
State Department officials brushed aside Gen. Anthony Zinni, commander of the U.S. Central Command, who had visited Nairobi on his own and warned that the Nairobi embassy was an easy and tempting target for terrorists. Zinni’s offer to send his own specialists to review security in Nairobi was turned down by the State Department.
Bombs Explode at 2 U.S. Embassies in Africa; Scores Dead | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 8, 1998
Powerful terrorist car bombs exploded just minutes apart outside U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania yesterday, killing at least 81 people — including eight Americans — and injuring more than 1,600. With dozens more Kenyans possibly buried in the rubble of a building next to the embassy, authorities said they fear the death toll could rise much higher.
As U.S. disaster relief units and anti-terrorism specialists were rushed to the two East African capitals, President Clinton angrily vowed to bring justice to those who committed the “cowardly attacks.”
Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright rushed back to Washington, stating that the administration will “spare no effort to use all means at our disposal to track down and punish the perpetrators of these outrageous acts.”
House Speaker Newt Gingrich said the bombings “should be a reminder to all of us that it is a dangerous world as we enter the 21st century. We need much better human intelligence, much more sophisticated efforts to go after terrorists and others.”
U.S. received detailed warning of embassy bombing, officials say Egyptian man reportedly told of plans 9 months before Kenya attack | BALTIMORE SUN | OCT 23, 1998
NAIROBI, Kenya — Nine months before the attack on the American Embassy here, U.S. intelligence officials received a detailed warning that Islamic radicals were plotting to blow up the building, according to Kenyan and American officials.
The warning forecast the Aug. 7 bombing in several particulars, the officials said. It came from an Egyptian man who American officials now believe was involved in the simultaneous terrorist assaults on the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
The Egyptian, Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed, is now in jail in Tanzania, charged by local prosecutors with bombing the embassy there.
Tanzanian authorities have not allowed Ahmed to be interviewed, and it was unclear what motivated him to alert authorities about a plot in which he appears to have played a role. He told the Kenyans that in the past he had provided authorities with information about Islamic radicals because he wanted to see them arrested and rehabilitated rather than caught committing a crime for which they would be executed.
A Tanzanian court refused to release Ahmed on bail this week and ruled that FBI agents would be permitted to interrogate him.
Tanzanian investigators suspect he was a central figure in the plot.
The Clinton administration has not sought to extradite Ahmed from Tanzania. Several non-American diplomats in the region speculated that the United States is allowing the Tanzanians to try Ahmed because they fear his trial in America might bring to light his dealings with U.S. authorities and other Western intelligence services.
In the days after the bombings, the administration acknowledged that it had spurned requests from the American ambassador in Kenya, Prudence Bushnell, to move the entire embassy to a safer location. The State Department would not say whether her cables mentioned Ahmed’s warning.
Warnings to the FBI: Could the Bombings Have Been Prevented? | PBS
A year before the U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa, the FBI and the Kenya police raided the house of Wadih El Hage in Nairobi, Kenya in August of 1997 and found a very disturbing letter on his computer hard drive. The letter, which the FBI believes was written by Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, AKA Haroun Fazul, outlines the presence of a bin Laden terrorist “cell” in Nairobi and clearly states the member’s knowledge of bin Laden’s call to kill Americans.
As early as 1994, United States intelligence officials were receiving worrisome reports about Osama bin Laden.
By 1996, the United States Justice Department quietly convened a grand jury in New York to investigate Osama bin Laden, and FBI investigators began building a case against him.
The CIA was simultaneously gathering intelligence about bin Laden and his associates.
Some of this evidence led the investigators to Kenya. In Kenya, there were two concrete warnings about an embassy attack during 1997.
According to intelligence sources, the CIA and FBI kept U.S. Ambassador to Kenya Prudence Bushnell and her staff fully informed about the warnings and the possible threat.
However, some embassy officials dispute this, saying they were not kept in the loop about the seriousness of the threat.
Throughout this period, Bushnell was pleading with the State Department to provide a new building or seriously upgrade security at the old building.
The State Department did not consider Nairobi a high-risk location and ignored Bushnell’s pleas.
Summer, 1997 — Wadih El Hage, who worked as a secretary for bin Laden in the Sudan, was found to be living in Nairobi, Kenya.
The FBI, CIA and Kenyan police cooperated on the August, 1997 raid on Wadih El Hage’s home. Under the pretext of searching for stolen goods, they entered the house and took Mr. El Hage’s computer.
On the hard drive of that computer, investigators found a chilling letter, which they now believe was written by El Hage’s houseguest, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed or Haroun Fazul. Fazul was also linked to bin Laden in the Sudan and had been living with the El Hage family in Kenya.
The letter clearly outlines the presence of a clandestine “cell” in Nairobi, operating under the instructions of “the Haj” or Osama bin Laden.
Just after the raid, the investigators interviewed Wadih El Hage in Nairobi. According to El Hage’s mother-in-law, the FBI repeatedly told both El Hage and his wife to leave the country. The agents insinuated that the family was in danger should they remain in the country. El Hage took them seriously and returned to the United States with his family in September of 1997.
It is unclear whether the investigators knew about Haroun Fazul at this time, or understood that he had been the author of the letter. Fazul somehow escaped their notice and continued his activities in Nairobi.He would later be declared the mastermind of the Nairobi bombing. In fact, on the day of the actual bombing, he drove the lead truck that led the bomb to the United States Embassy.
Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed
November, 1997 – Near the end of 1997, an Egyptian named Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed walked into the United States Embassy in Nairobi and told a CIA agent that he knew of a plan to detonate a truck bomb in the parking garage of the embassy.
He was interrogated by Kenyan police and admitted that he had taken part in surveillance of the embassy, including taking photos.
For unknown reasons, the CIA did not take Mr. Ahmed’s statements seriously and he was deported. The CIA issued two intelligence reports on the warning, but called into question the credibility of Mr. Ahmed.
Mr. Ahmed was arrested in Tanzania just after the 1998 summer bombings and has been charged in conjunction with the Dar Es Salaam bombing attack.
Doctor who helped CIA track bin Laden still languishes in Pakistan jail | TELEGRAPH | MAY 2, 2016
Iran: Scientist who gave US nuclear intelligence executed | FOX NEWS | AUG 07, 2016
How an Iranian’s Spy Saga Ends, 6 Years Later: He’s Executed | NEW YORK TIMES | AUG 7, 2016
Cotton: Clinton discussed executed Iranian scientist on email | WASHINGTON EXAMINER | AUG 7, 2016
50 U.S.C. § 421 : US Code – Section 421: Protection of identities of certain United States undercover intelligence officers, agents, informants, and sources
(a) Disclosure of information by persons having or having had access to classified information that identifies covert agent Whoever, having or having had authorized access to classified information that identifies a covert agent, intentionally discloses any information identifying such covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such covert agent and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such covert agent’s intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 15 years, or both.
(b) Disclosure of information by persons who learn identity of covert agents as result of having access to classified information Whoever, as a result of having authorized access to classified information, learns the identify of a covert agent and intentionally discloses any information identifying such covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such covert agent and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such covert agent’s intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
(c) Disclosure of information by persons in course of pattern of activities intended to identify and expose covert agents Whoever, in the course of a pattern of activities intended to identify and expose covert agents and with reason to believe that such activities would impair or impede the foreign intelligence activities of the United States, discloses any information that identifies an individual as a covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such individual and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such individual’s classified intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.
(d) Imposition of consecutive sentences A term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be consecutive to any other sentence of imprisonment.
Getting back to the bombings:
Although Kenyans and Tanzanians accounted for the vast majority of dead and injured in today’s attacks, the bombings together killed and injured more Americans than any terrorist attack on a U.S. installation abroad since a truck bomb exploded outside the Khobar Towers military housing complex near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, on June 25, 1996, killing 19 Americans and injuring more than 500 U.S. servicemen and Saudis.
According to journalist Lawrence Wright, the Nairobi operation was named after the Holy Kaaba in Mecca; the Dar es Salaam bombing was called Operation al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, but “neither had an obvious connection to the American embassies in Africa.
Bin Laden initially said that the sites had been targeted because of the ‘invasion’ of Somalia;
Then he described an American plan to partition Sudan, which he said was hatched in the embassy in Nairobi.
He also told his followers that the genocide in Rwanda had been planned inside the two American embassies.”
Wright concludes that bin Laden’s actual goal was “to lure the United States into Afghanistan, which had long been called ‘The Graveyard of Empires.'”
Who investigated this stuff? | FBI
Comey Politicized the FBI, Brennan the CIA | NEWSWEEK | FEB 20, 2017
John O. Brennan
His term as CIA Director coincided with revelations that the U.S. government conducted massive levels of global surveillance, that the CIA had hacked into the computers of U.S. Senate employees, and the release of the U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture.
While riding a bus to class at Fordham, he saw an ad in The New York Times that said the CIA was recruiting, and he felt a CIA career would be a good match for his “wanderlust” and his desire to do public service. His studies included a junior year abroad learning Arabic and taking Middle Eastern studies courses at the American University in Cairo. In 1976, he voted for Communist Party USA candidate Gus Hall in the presidential election; he later said that he viewed it as a way “of signaling my unhappiness with the system, and the need for change.”
Brennan began his CIA career as an analyst, presumably in the Washington D.C. area, and spent 25 years with the agency. At one point in his career, he was a daily intelligence briefer for President Bill Clinton. In 1996 he was CIA station chief in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia when the Khobar Towers bombing killed 19 U.S. servicemen. In 1999 he was appointed chief of staff to George Tenet, then-Director of the CIA. Brennan became deputy executive director of the CIA in March 2001. He was director of the newly created Terrorist Threat Integration Center from 2003 to 2004, an office that sifted through and compiled information for President Bush’s daily top secret intelligence briefings and employed the services of analysts from a dozen U.S. agencies and entities.
North Bergen man is homeland security assistant for President Obama | NORTH JERSEY | DEC 5, 2009
The journey that took John O. Brennan from 74th Street in North Bergen to a West Wing office where President Obama relies on him to coordinate fights against al-Qaida and swine flu started on the bus he rode to Fordham University.
“Using a legitimate term, ‘jihad,’ meaning to purify oneself or to wage a holy struggle for a moral goal, risks giving these murderers the religious legitimacy they desperately seek but in no way deserve,” he said in a speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in August.
Time in Arab world
Brennan’s understanding of the Arab world and the Middle East is the product of years of work there for the CIA.
“I would spend time with the tribes, go out and spend several days with them, travel out into the different areas of the country. I find the Arab world a fascinating place,” he said.
“It’s unfortunate that terrorist incidents have created a false impression of anti-American sentiment in the Arab world. There are elements — radicals, extremists — who harbor those anti-U.S. sentiments, but there are a lot of very positive views toward the United States,” he said.
He saw terrorism close up as CIA station chief in Riyadh in 1996 when a truck bomb blew up the Khobar Towers housing complex and killed 19 U.S. servicemen.
When FBI Director Louis Freeh came out for the investigation, the bombing was not the only thing he and Brennan had to talk about. Freeh had grown up down the block in North Bergen, and Brennan knew him from the neighborhood even though he was several years older.
Keane said he never expected him to join the CIA, and for part of Brennan’s career his cover story was that he was working in the Middle East for the State Department. Later, Keane recalled Brennan having spent the summer after freshman year with a cousin who was working for the Agency for International Development in Indonesia, and visiting Bahrain on the way home.
“I wondered if he had even been recruited that early,” Keane said.
Brennan said the trip after his freshman year “made a lasting impression on me that the world was a big place, that there was more than just North Bergen and Hudson County.”
When a Fordham professor told him about an opportunity to spend his junior year abroad at American University in Cairo, Egypt, he jumped at it and spent part of his time learning Arabic.
Pasquale “Pat” D’Amuro | BLOOMBERG
Board Member Chairman and Chief Executive Officer – Global Risk & Investigative Diligence, LLC
Pat D’Amuro is the former Chairman and CEO of Giuliani Security & Safety LLC, a division of Giuliani Partners LLC dedicated to security consulting.
Previously, Mr. D’Amuro served as the Assistant Director in Charge of the New York FBI Office, where he began his FBI career in 1979.
Much of Mr. D’Amuro’s twenty-six year career has been devoted to counterterrorism, in which he is an internationally recognized expert.
After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Mr. D’Amuro was appointed Inspector in Charge of the FBI’s investigation of those attacks.
Subsequently, Mr. D’Amuro served as Assistant Director of the Counterterrorism Division at FBI Headquarters and, later, Executive Assistant Director for Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence. In these capacities, he was instrumental in the creation and management of the FBI’s Terrorism Threat Integration Center and Terrorism Watch List.
During his distinguished career at the FBI, Mr. D’Amuro contributed to or led several high profile investigations, including the investigations of the 1998 bombings of the American Embassies in East Africa and the 2000 attack on the USS Cole in Yemen, as well as the latter stages of the investigations of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the Manila Air plot, and the crash of TWA Flight 800. Mr. D’Amuro has provided advice and briefings to the President of the United States, the U.S. Attorney General, the Director of the FBI, and the National Security Council, among others.
Mr. D’Amuro also serves as Chair of Decision Sciences’ Board of Advisors.
Fran Townsend | ASPEN INSTITUTE
On Public-Private Partnerships: A Conversation with Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | DELOITTE REVIEW | 2010
The past several decades have witnessed a marked shift in sources of foreign aid. Whereas the bulk of the money flowing from the United States to the developing world in the 1960s was official development assistance, today over 80 percent of it comes from private sources. In response to the increased role the private sector and civil society are playing in international development, the U.S. Department of State is shifting the way it views the department’s role in advancing U.S. foreign policy objectives.
To better integrate the development work being undertaken across regions and by different sectors, the State Department has created a new office under Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton responsible for creating partnerships with individuals, businesses and not-for-profit organizations around issues of common interest ranging from food security to HIV/AIDS.
To lead this effort, Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley was appointed Special Representative for Global Partnerships. In this role, she leads the State Department’s new Global Partnership Initiative, making public-private partnerships a core component of diplomacy. A seasoned diplomat, Ambassador Bagley comes to this newly created position having previously served as Senior Advisor to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and as U.S. Ambassador to Portugal.
1998 US Embassies in Africa Bombings Fast Facts | CNN | JULY 27, 2015
August 7, 1998 – Almost simultaneously, bombs explode at U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, killing 224 people. More than 5,000 are wounded. Twelve of those killed in Kenya are U.S. citizens.
August 20, 1998 – The U.S. launches cruise missiles at suspected terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, in retaliation for the embassy bombings.
Africa embassy bombings: attacks that propelled Bin Laden into the limelight | THE GUARDIAN | JAN 20, 2015
On 20 August 1998, the factory was destroyed in cruise missile strikes launched by the United States military allegedly in retaliation for the truck bombattacks on its embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya on 7 August. The administration of President Bill Clinton justified the attacks, dubbed Operation Infinite Reach, on the grounds that the al-Shifa plant was involved with processing the deadly nerve agent VX, and had ties with the Islamist al-Qaeda group of Osama bin Laden.
Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory
The Al-Shifa (الشفاء, Arabic for “healing”) pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North, Sudan, was constructed between 1992 and 1996 with components imported from Germany, India, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States. It was opened 12 July 1997.
U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan | CNN | AUG 20, 1998
Sudanese television showed piles of rubble at the factory and fire raging in the distance. People were seen walking through the damage, wearing masks.
Sudanese officials reacted angrily to the attacks. Interior Minister Abdul Rahim told CNN in a telephone interview that the privately owned pharmaceutical firm had “nothing to do with chemical weapons.”
“We have no chemical weapons factory in our country,” he said.
A statement read on Sudanese television about an hour after the attack said, “The wrongful American air force launched air attacks on Sudan tonight which aimed at strategic and vital areas.” There was no report as to the number of casualties.
Well he wasn’t lying. They didn’t have any.
The Missiles of August | NEW YORKER | OCT 12, 1998
“The Sudanese plant, depicted by the White House as a chemical-warfare facility, was one of 2 targets in a retaliatory raid against Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden, who was linked to the bombings of American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania earlier that month; Tomahawks were also fired at sites in Afghanistan suspected to be terrorist training camps under the control of bin Laden.”
They bomb pharmacies, don’t they? | SALON | SEP 23, 1998
On Aug. 20, President Clinton personally ordered the leveling of the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant on the outskirts of Khartoum.
Sources in U.S. Intelligence apparently claimed that there was only one “window” through which to strike at bin Laden, and that the only time they could hope to hit his Afghan fastness by this remote means was on the night of Monica Lewinsky’s return to the grand jury.
Look at the Place! Sudan Says, ‘Say Sorry,’ but U.S. Won’t | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 20, 2005
“Sudan’s government wants the Shifa factory preserved just as it was shortly after 13 Tomahawk cruise missiles took it out in the early evening of August 20. The destroyed factory has become a monument of sorts, a place that Sudanese authorities say symbolizes the mistreatment they have suffered at the hands of the world’s superpower.”
“The government wants it as a showcase,” said Eltayeb Hag Ateya, director of the Peace Studies Institute at the University of Khartoum. “It’s still a thorn in Sudan-American relations. It will always be a point for the Sudanese government to bring up.”
“Well then, what was the hurry? A hurry that was panicky enough for the president and his advisors to pick the wrong objective and then, stained with embarrassment and retraction, to refuse the open inquiry that could have settled the question in the first place? There is really only one possible answer to that question. Clinton needed to look “presidential” for a day.”
The Observer noted:
“The loss of this factory is a tragedy for the rural communities who need these medicines” quoting Tom Carnaffin, technical manager with “intimate knowledge” of the destroyed plant.
A month later, Guardian correspondent Patrick Wintour elaborated that the plant “provided 50 percent of Sudan’s medicines, and its destruction has left the country with no supplies of chloroquine, the standard treatment for malaria”. (Wintour, Patrick, The Observer, 20 December 1998.)
He continued that, despite this, the
British government (who publicly backed the attack) refused requests “to resupply chloroquine in emergency relief until such time as the Sudanese can rebuild their pharmaceutical production”.
The factory was a principal source of Sudan’s anti-malaria and veterinary drugs according to the CBW Conventions Bulletin. | THE CBW CONVENTIONS BULLETIN
Coincidentally Malaria Spirals Out of Control
Malaria Surveillance – United States, 1999 | CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL
The 25.5% increase in malaria cases in 1999, compared with 1998, resulted primarily from increases in cases acquired in Africa and the Americas.
This increase is possibly related to a change in the system by which states report to CDC, but it could also have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, increased travel to these regions, improved reporting to state and local health departments, or a decreased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.
In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country where they acquired malaria.
Public Complain of Malaria Vaccine Shortage | GHANA WEB | NOV 3, 2000
The general public has raised concern and doubt over malaria vaccines, which they said are running short in health centres.
In an interview in health centres, members of the public expressed ‘strong interest’, calling for ‘immediate’ explanation from the health department over what they saw as the acute shortage of chloroquine vaccines at a time when malaria is taking a high toll on the population.
Time to act! What can USAID do for you?
United States Agency for International Development
USAID’s programs are authorized by the Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act, which the Congress supplements through directions in annual funding appropriation acts and other legislation. Although it is technically an independent agency, USAID operates subject to the foreign policy guidance of the President, Secretary of State, and the National Security Council. USAID operates in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.
Evaluating Malaria Interventions In Africa: A Review and Assessment of Recent Research | USAID | NOV 1999
“According to the most recent data, 40% (2,400 million) of the world population in over 90 countries is affected by malaria. In any given year, nearly 10% of the global population will suffer a case of malaria (Malaria International, 1998).”
“There are 300 – 500 million clinical cases of malaria worldwide each year with the majority occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 1998).”
“Malaria has been estimated to cause 9% of all disease in Africa (Nchinda, 1998).”
“According to recent data, there are 1.5 – 2.7 million deaths due to malaria each year, the bulk of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa where an estimated 360 million people live in areas of stable, endemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission (Snow et al., 1999a).”
Rolling Back Malaria | WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION | 1999
Almost 300 million clinical cases of malaria occur worldwide each year and over one million people die.
Almost 90% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where young children are the most affected.
Malaria is directly responsible for one in five childhood deaths in Africa and indirectly contributes to illness and deaths from respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and malnutrition.
The author then uses factual information in a manner that is very misleading.
“Chloroquine, perhaps the best ever antimalarial drug, and certainly the most widely used, is now failing against falciparum malaria in most areas of the tropical world.”
“In some areas, such as parts of South-East Asia and South America, chloroquine is now completely ineffective against P. falciparum malaria.”
True, but we’re talking about Africa. That’s where the problem is.
“In many parts of India and Africa, its effectiveness is falling rapidly.”
True, but still misleading. Per the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), “despite declining use, CQ remained the first-line therapy for uncomplicated P.f. malaria in the majority of sub-Saharan countries until after 2000.” | US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE
“For the treatment of falciparum malaria, the usual successor to chloroquine is a combination of pyrimethamine and a long acting sulphonamide (SP), which is also affordable and well tolerated. Five countries in Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland) have now been forced to switch from chloroquine to SP as the first line antimalarial treatment.”
“Unfortunately, in several of the areas where it has been deployed, notably South-East Asia and South America, P. falciparum has become widely SP-resistant.”
I thought we were talking about sub-Saharan Africa.
The resurgence of malaria (and AIDS) is largely the result of ‘foreign policy’ decisions, made during the Bush & Clinton administrations.
World Health Organization (WHO) backs controversial chemical for malaria control | SCI DEV NET | SEP 18, 2006
The controversial insecticide DDT — which most nations have banned — is back on the menu for malaria control after the World Health Organization reversed a 30-year old policy on Friday (15 September).
The move puts annual indoor spraying of DDT alongside drugs and bednets as one of the three main tools for controlling the disease.
“The scientific and programmatic evidence clearly supports this reassessment,” said Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, assistant director-general for HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria at the World Health Organization (WHO).
“[Indoor spraying] has proven to be just as cost-effective as other malaria prevention methods, and DDT presents no health risk when used properly.”
The chemical kills the mosquitoes that spread malaria. It helped eradicate the disease from southern Europe and North America in the 1960s.
DDT is also toxic to birds, fish and mammals. It accumulates in the food chain and remains in the environment for many years. In the 1970s, growing awareness of these threats led many countries to ban its use in agriculture.
Malaria linked to catastrophic spread of AIDS in Africa | SCI DEV NET | DEC 8, 2006
Research in Kenya indicates that the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS across Africa could be linked to malaria.
The work has important implications for public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need to tackle both diseases together.
There is considerable geographical overlap between HIV/AIDS — which infects over 40 million people in Africa — and malaria, which causes 500 million clinical infections each year.
People with both malaria and HIV/AIDS are more likely to transmit the HIV virus, according to the study published in the journal Science today (8 December). This may have promoted the rapid spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa.
“We have always known the relationship between [malaria and HIV/AIDS], but we did not know the impact it had on the spread: now we have a reference point,” says Ayub Manya, an epidemiologist with the Kenyan National Malaria Control Programme.
World Bank head praises DDT use against malaria | SCI DEV NET | MAR 19, 2007
World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz has praised South Africa’s malaria control programme, saying the country’s use of indoor residual spraying has reduced malaria episodes.
Wolfowitz says he will consider taking South Africa’s approach to other malaria-affected countries. He committed around US$48 million for malaria control in 14 African countries, which could increase, depending on success.
’The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group’
The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group – having a joint vision for a major contribution to a world free from malaria morbidity and mortality through vaccination – has its origins in discussions among representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
The European Commission (EC)
The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP)
The European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Extramural Malaria Program
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Malaria Vaccine Development Program (MVDP)
The Wellcome Trust
The World Health Organization (WHO) Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR)
This is not limited to Malaria or Clinton.
The President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.
Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC)
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department of Defense (DoD)
Department of Commerce (DoC)
Department of Labor (DoL)
The program has provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) to over 7.7 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings and supported HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for more than 56.7 million people as of 2014. PEPFAR increased the number of Africans receiving ART from 50,000 at the start of the initiative in 2004. PEPFAR has been called the largest health initiative ever initiated by one country to address a disease. The budget presented for the fiscal year 2016 included a request for $1.11 billion for PEPFAR as well as contributions from global organizations such as UNAIDS and private donors.
Africa’s clinical trial: Big Pharma deploys R&D in Africa | THIS IS AFRICA | JUN 24, 2013
Aside from the most contentious episodes, there was also a general lack of interest in product development.
Companies showed little inclination to research the so-called ‘neglected’ diseases, as they could not see any way to recoup their investment.
Only 13 new drugs were developed for this disease group between 1975 and 1996 out of more than 1,200 new drugs globally, and all but four were accidental by-products of other research.
By 1995, the 15 biggest pharmaceutical companies had virtually closed down tropical disease research efforts.
The End Of Antibiotics | NEWSWEEK | MAR 27, 1994
Indeed, it looks like medicine declared victory and went home too soon.
Every disease-causing bacterium now has versions that resist at least one of medicine’s 100-plus antibiotics.
The financial toll is steep, too. Because the first antibiotic prescribed often fails, the patient has to try several.
How did we get into this bind? In their eagerness to finish off the old diseases, doctors and patients have, paradoxically, given them new life.
Patients demand antibiotics for viral infections, like colds, that antibiotics cannot touch; every dose of antibiotics makes it that much easier for resistance to spread.
Also, doctors sometimes dispense antibiotics without knowing whether the sore throat, or even the pneumonia, is indeed caused by bacteria
Not the only epidemic caused by malpractice.
America’s Addiction to Opiods: Heroin and Prescription Drug Abuse | DRUGABUSEdotGOV | MAY 14, 2014
The abuse of and addiction to opioids such as heroin, morphine, and prescription pain relievers is a serious global problem that affects the health, social, and economic welfare of all societies.
It is estimated that between 26.4 million and 36 million people abuse opioids worldwide, with an estimated 2.1 million people in the United States suffering from substance use disorders related to prescription opioid pain relievers in 2012 and an estimated 467,000 addicted to heroin.
The consequences of this abuse have been devastating and are on the rise. For example, the number of unintentional overdose deaths from prescription pain relievers has soared in the United States, more than quadrupling since 1999.
There is also growing evidence to suggest a relationship between increased non-medical use of opioid analgesics and heroin abuse in the United States.
“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”
Small But Growing Number of Doctors Face Criminal Charges Over Prescription Drugs | DRUGFREEdotORG | SEP 15, 2011
Doctors must lead us out of our opioid abuse epidemic | CNN | JUN 2, 2016
We’ve got the best pharmaceutical companies, folks | BAYER | WIKIPEDIA
Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.
Instead, the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself.
The head of Bayer’s research department reputedly coined the drug’s new name, “heroin,” based on the German heroisch, which means “heroic, strong” (from the ancient Greek word “heros, ήρως”).
Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but their scientists discovered ways to make it, and Bayer led commercialization of heroin.
Yes, Bayer Promoted Heroin for Children — Here Are The Ads That Prove It | BUSINESS INSIDER | NOV 17, 2011
It’s not news that Bayer, the venerable German drug company, made its first fortunes in the late 1890s when it commercialized both aspirin and heroin as cough, cold and pain remedies.
Many people have seen the sepia images of vintage Bayer’s “Heroin” brand medicine bottles.
But it’s less widely known that Bayer promoted heroin for use in children suffering from coughs, colds and “irritation” as late as 1912, according to an anti-Bayer watchdog group.
“Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.”
“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”
Returning to Malaria.
Unethical Clinical Trials Still Being Conducted in Developing Countries | HUFFINGTON POST | OCT 3, 2014
In 1997, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group brought widespread international attention to unethical clinical trials.
The trials were testing new methods for preventing the spread of HIV infection from pregnant women to their babies before or after giving birth in developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.
In each of these trials, most of which were funded by the U.S. government, some women were randomly assigned to receive placebos or other treatments known to be ineffective, rather than a drug proven effective in preventing the spread of HIV infection from mother to baby.
The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review | WORKING PAPERS – HARVARD | MAR 1999
In 1990, the WHO estimated global malaria incidence at about 120 million clinical cases annually.
In 1994, they estimated 300-500 million cases annually.
The life-cycle of vector-borne diseases like malaria is complex relative to that of many directly-transmitted human diseases (including bacterial or viral diseases like bacterial meningitis or HIV).
Figure 1 shows an overlay of data from World Health Organization maps of malaria risk in 1946, 1966, and 1994, illustrating the extent of this localization to the tropics. Of about 120 countries, islands, or colonies where malaria was endemic in 1945, the disease has disappeared from 15 European countries, about seven islands or archipelagoes, the United States, Israel, and Chile.
As table 1 shows, the current (1999) situation is not uniform.
For example, only 9% of Malaysia’s population lives in regions where malaria is transmitted, and in 1994 59,000 cases of malaria were diagnosed in health clinics serving a total population of 20 million people. In contrast, the whole of Tanzania’s population of 29 million remains at risk of contracting the disease, with more than 8 million diagnosed in health clinics in 1994.
About 40% of the world’s population remains at risk for infection, of whom 19% live in Africa; in addition, about 90% of clinical malaria cases occur in sub-saharan Africa.
MALARIA | OUR WORLD IN DATA | ARCHIVED JAN 1, 2017
Africa is the world region that is most affected by malaria: In 2015, the African continent held 9 out of 10 malaria victims
Conducting clinical trials in emerging markets of sub-Saharan Africa: review of guidelines and resources for foreign sponsors | DOVE PRESS | OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC & MEDICAL RESEARCH | JAN 7, 2015
Clinical trials provide a foundation for new drug development processes, as well as for product license extensions for existing therapies.
The reduction in the amount of time and cost to conduct a clinical trial becomes important, as competition to bring a new drug to the market is increasing, and so is the search for new markets.
Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia offer a diverse patient population, as well as a comparatively research-friendly and ambitious government to develop these countries as pharmaceutical and health sectors of excellence.
All these countries have their own guidelines to conduct clinical trials that feature some similarities and some subtle differences.
Over the last decade, the guidelines have been evolving to provide a good ground to foreign sponsor, which carry out clinical trials while keeping the interest of patients as a priority.
Anger at deadly Nigerian drug trials | BBC NEWS | JUN 20, 2007
In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria.
Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to administer an experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, to approximately 200 children.
Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities.
Tenofovir trials on HIV transmission | THE LANCET | SOMO pg 4 | 2004–2005
Drugs | lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir) + tenofovir (Viread) or nevirapine (Viramune) or abacavir (Ziagen) (DART trial)
Treatment | Anti-retroviral therapy (ART)
Sponsors | UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Rockefeller Foundation, DfID (Uganda), GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Boehringer-Ingelheim
Period | 2003 – 2006 (DART trial)
Location | Uganda, Zimbabwe, Côte d’Ivoire
ART treatment interruption trials (DART TRIALS) | SOMO pg 3 | 2003-2006
Drugs | Tenofovir (Viread)
Treatment | Prevention of HIV transmission
Sponsors | Gilead, US CDC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Research organization | Family Health International (FHI) in Africa, US NIH in Cambodia
Period | 2004 – 2005
Location | Cameroon, Thailand, Nigeria
Nevirapine PMTCT trials in Uganda | SOMO pg 6
Drug | nevirapine (Viramune)
Treatment | HIV prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)
Sponsors | Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), US National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Period | 1997 – 2003
Location | Uganda
Ragaglitazar trials in India and other countries | SOMO pg 12
Drugs | ragaglitazar
Treatment | Diabetes treatment
Sponsors | Novo Nordisk
Period | 2002
Location | 32 countries, including India
’Many drugs for U.S. kids tested in poor countries’ | REUTERS | AUG 23, 2010
A law intended to speed up development of new drugs for U.S. kids has ended up financing clinical trials in poor countries, where the medicines might never become available.”The trend that we describe brings up some scientific and ethical problems,” said Dr. Sara K. Pasquali, a pediatrician at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, whose findings appear in the journal Pediatrics.According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.”Recruiting people is easy, getting informed consent is easy, getting approval is easy, paying the patients and paying the doctors is easy,” Ghayur said. “The physicians and investigators have absolutely no idea about the seriousness of the situation.”
LOBBYING FEES PAID TO PODESTA GROUP
1998 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $120,000
1999 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $140,000
2000 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2001 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $20,000
2002 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2003 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $330,000
2004 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2005 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2006 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.
’Many drugs for U.S. kids tested in poor countries’ | REUTERS | AUG 23, 2010
Well at least he’s honest.
Trials on foster care children in New York | SOMO pg 14
Guinea Pig Kids | BBC | NOV 29, 2004
HIV positive children – some only a few months old – are enrolled in toxic experiments without the consent of guardians or relatives.The city’s Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) does not even require a court order to place HIV kids with foster parents or in children’s homes, where they can continue to give them experimental drugs.
‘New York’s HIV experiment’ | BBC | NOV 30, 2004
Jacklyn Hoerger’s job was to treat children with HIV at a New York children’s home.But nobody had told her that the drugs she was administering were experimental and highly toxic.
SFBC Miami test centre | SOMO pg 7
Drugs | Various
Sponsors | Pfizer, Merck & Co, Johnson & Johnson, Schering-Plough, Theravance, Purdue Pharma, AstraZeneca, and others
Research organization | SFBC
Period | 2000 – 2005
Location | Miami, USA
Side Effects May Include Lawsuits | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 2, 2010
Every major company selling the antipsychotics — Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — has either settled recent government cases, under the False Claims Act, for hundreds of millions of dollars or is currently under investigation for possible health care fraud.
PODESTA GROUP LOBBYING FEES
2012 | Bristol-Myers Squibb | $100,000
CLINTON FOUNDATION DONATIONS | WASHINGTON POST
Johnson & Johnson | $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca | PLC $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP | $50,001 – $100,000
Malaria drug causes brain damage that mimics PTSD: case study | MILITARY TIMES | AUG 11, 2016
The case of a service member diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder but found instead to have brain damage caused by a malaria drug raises questions about the origin of similar symptoms in other post-9/11 veterans.
According to the case study published online in Drug Safety Case Reports in June, a U.S. military member sought treatment at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, for uncontrolled anger, insomnia, nightmares and memory loss.
The fix is in
Leaked Podesta email discussing price fixing AIDS drugs for their benefit. | WIKILEAKS | DEC 12, 2011
“We were taken by surprise by President Clinton’s comments on world AIDS day and wish that someone had consulted with us before he made these comments.” …
…” We have always told the drug companies that we would not pressure them and create a slippery slope where prices they negotiate with us for poor countries would inevitably lead to similar prices in rich countries.” …
… “We would have to initiate discussions with multiple state health officials as well as HHS in addition to talking with the drug companies.” …
… “Whatever we decide, we need to make a decision quickly and President Clinton and CHAI need to be in synch. I do not think it is a good idea for President Clinton to be taking one position and CHAI another.” …
Is the Clinton Foundation Responsible for the High Price of AIDS Drugs in the US? | HUFFINGTON POST | DEC 30, 2016
“If you really had to think long and hard about it, the ultimate result of years of negotiations by the Clinton Foundation was that the price of AIDS drugs ended up being high in the US.”
“Furthermore, African governments were paranoid that drug companies were a part of a massive conspiracy suppressing their countries.”
Clinton Foundation AIDS Program Distributed ‘Watered-Down’ Drugs to Third World Countries | DAILY CALLER | SEP 19, 2016
Former President Bill Clinton and his Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) distributed “watered-down” HIV/AIDs drugs to patients in sub-Saharan Africa, and “likely increased” the risks of morbidity and mortality.
The CHAI program to help AIDS victims is considered one of the Clinton Foundation’s most important contributions and is probably its best known initiative.
Ranbaxy ultimately pleaded guilty in 2013 to seven criminal counts with intent to defraud and the introduction of adulterated drugs into interstate commerce.
The Department of Justice further levied a $500 million fine and forfeiture on the company.
Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. donated $100,001 – $250,000 to the Clinton Foundation.
Clinton Foundation Advised World Bank on Contracts That Netted Donors Millions | FREE BEACON | AUG 16, 2016
Two of every three dollars spent acquiring anti-tuberculosis drugs through the program, which is administered by the World Bank, have gone to two companies—Swiss health care giant Novartis and Indian drug company Lupin Ltd.—that together have donated up to $130,000 to the Clinton Foundation.
The project, dubbed the Second National Tuberculosis Control Project (SNTCP), is financed by the World Bank’s International Development Association, which receives the bulk of its funding from the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany.
Clinton has pointed to her foundation’s work in promoting access to pharmaceuticals in the developing world as an example of its laudatory humanitarian mission.
However, critics have noted how beneficiaries of other foundation-backed pharmaceutical access programs have made large financial contributions to the group. Companies that received funds from the foundation to provide low-cost HIV drugs, for instance, were donors to the foundation.
BLACKBURN RELEASES CLINTON FOUNDATION REPORT | CONGRESSMAN MARSHA BLACKBURN | SEP 20, 2016
The Clinton Foundation Likely Facilitated The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa Through Its Health Access Initiative.
The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa May Have Increased Patient Mortality Rates.
Watered Down HIV/AIDS ARVs Were Purchased With Taxpayer Money Through PEPFAR As A Result of Price Agreements, Some of Which Were Likely Negotiated By The Clinton Foundation.
President Clinton Was Personally Enriched With Million Dollar Consulting Contracts By A Friend of Convicted Felon, and Ranbaxy advocate, Rajat Gupta From 2002-2008.
Lobbyists for Clinton’s ‘Enemies’ Are Bankrolling Her Campaign | FREE BEACON | OCT 14, 2015
Asked to name the enemies that she is most proud of during Tuesday’s Democratic presidential debate, Hillary Clinton cited industries represented by lobbyists who are among her top campaign fundraisers.
In addition to Iran and the Republican Party, Clinton said she was proud to count “the health insurance companies” and “the drug companies” as her enemies.
Those industries’ lobbyists do not appear to share that enmity. By mid-July, seven of them had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for her presidential campaign, according to campaign finance records.
They include Heather and Tony Podesta, the recently divorced Democratic power brokers. Heather Podesta represents health insurer Cigna, while Tony lobbies on behalf of pharmaceutical firms Amgen and EMD Serono, a division of drug giant Merck.
The Podestas have also given as much as $150,000 to the Clinton Foundation, according to that group’s list of donors.
Insurers Humana and Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina and drug company Pfizer have donated between $1 million and $5 million. Merck has given $250,000 to $500,000; AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson have donated $100,000 to $250,000.
One of the speakers at this year’s annual Clinton Global Initiative summit was Merck chairman and chief executive Kenneth Frazier, a PhRMA board member. Last year, CGI hosted the president of health care consulting firm Rabin Martin, which represents a number of drug companies. The year before, it announced financial commitments from Pfizer, one of multiple such charitable commitments that drug company has made through the Clinton Foundation.
Clinton Foundation Briefing: Africa 2012 | WIKILEAKS (pg. 9 of attachment)
“CLINTON HEALTH ACCESS INITIATIVE (CHAI) first began working in South Africa in 2003, when the government asked for assistance to develop a plan to significantly scale up HIV services and access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 2009, CHAI was invited back to partner with the South African Government to help improve the response to HIV and TB, which laid the foundation for the most aggressive expansion of HIV testing and treatment ever attempted in the world. In addition to the CHAI HIV/AIDS work, CHAI also supports the National Department of Health (NDOH) with efforts to eliminate malaria.”
“CHAI worked with the government to develop implementation plans for testing and treatment and to select facilities for ART scale-up. From April 2010 to March 2012, the number of facilities providing ART increased from 495 to over 3000, and in the last year close to 430,000 people started treatment. Since April 2010, nearly 20 million HIV tests were conducted in South Africa.”
CHAI UPDATE – February 2013 | WIKILEAKS (attachment)
Industry-sponsored clinical drug trials in Egypt | SOMO | JUN 21, 2016
The past 20 years have seen a considerable shift in the location of clinical drug trials sponsored by transnational pharmaceutical companies (TNCs), with a significant ex-pansion of such tests being conducted in low- and middle-income settings. This increased offshoring may result in serious ethical violations as highlighted by several recent field investigations and media reports.
An attractive research infrastructure, a fast-growing and largely treatment-naïve population, and lower costs make Egypt among the most popular places in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region for offshoring medicine testing. Egypt is second only to South Africa on the African continent in terms of the number of TNC-sponsored clinical trials it hosts.
Of the 57 international drug trials that were active in Egypt in February 2016, over half were cancer trials. The two Swiss giants Novartis and Roche are responsible for almost 50 per cent of the international drug trials taking place in the country. The Arab spring events of early 2011 and the subsequent political unrest had no chilling effect on the number of active international drug trials – on the contrary.
Egypt has the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis C in the world, and was the frst low- or middle-income country in 2014 to negotiate preferential pricing for the new direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment sofosbuvir (Sovaldi®) with manufacturer Gilead.
Raymond Schinazi fled Nasser’s Egypt to become pioneer in antivirals | FINANCIAL TIMES | JUL 27, 2014
He personally had a hand in discovering and developing several key treatments for HIV and hepatitis C. These include Gilead’s Sovaldi, which has had the best-selling debut in pharmaceutical history: sales hit $5.8bn in the first half of 2014.
The Drug That is Bankrupting America | HUFFINGTON POST | FEB 2, 2015
Former VA Scientist Responds to Lawmaker’s Suspicions over Drug Sale | MILITARYdotCOM
The drug shown to cure hepatitis C is sold by Gilead Sciences of California under the brand name Sovaldi, but it was developed at Pharmasset, a private lab owned by Dr. Raymond Schinazi while he worked for the VA Medical Center in Atlanta and Emory University.
Today, skeptical lawmakers question whether Schinazi got rich using VA resources and funding. He sold Pharmasset, and with it the drug, to Gilead in 2011 for $11 billion.
Hepatitis C Drug Maker is Price Gouging, republican lawmaker says | MILITARY TIMES | JAN 27, 2016
The chairman of the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee has accused the makers of hepatitis C drug sofosbuvir of opportunism and price-gouging for charging the U.S. government up to $68,000 for a treatment regimen that costs about $1,400 to manufacture.
International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Board of Advisors
Emory University School of Medicine | Professor of Pediatrics,
RFS Pharma LLC | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences in 2003)
Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Pharmasset (VRUS) | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences for $11B IN 2012)
Foundation for AIDS Reserach | Governing Trustee
The pharmaceutical lobbying industry is worth over double the oil and gas sector | OPEN SECRETS
In the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic shift in clinical trial practices with companies now primarily outsourcing pipeline testing to third world countries. | SOMO
During this time, the Clinton Foundation and its partners began constructing a vast network of infrastructure throughout the Third World. Clinton’s trip to Africa in 1998 was the longest trip in history by a US President | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 47421 | ATTACHMENT
The foundations/corporations moved in with their gizmos and cash and dug in.
They’ve been constructing infrastructure like mad- transportation infrastructure including roads, bridges, seaports, airports, power generation, food production, information (news), telecommunications, intelligence (and intelligence sharing) etc. | UNOHRLLS
This is power consolidation. It’s easy to control a population if you control the things mentioned above. The easiest way to gain control over “critical infrastructure” is to destroy order, and implement your own.
These companies collect money from US taxpayers, but more importantly, they are granted permission to begin activities in specific locations).
In the name of humanitarian causes they do their work collecting big data to develop and test products (and who knows what else?).
The truth is (most of) these people don’t care about kids in Africa. If they did care, the billions being poured in by these problem solvers would have made things at least slightly better. Africa is a bigger mess than ever. The entire continent. Oil and gas is oppressing people in Nigeria. Pharmaceutical companies are oppressing people in South Africa. On and on.
90% of the charitable work is front. They’re collecting data on human subjects. The “giving pledge” is a fugazi. Why do you think these people just get richer and richer despite ‘giving’ their money away?
For example, Microsoft (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation) is partnered with ICMEC, Monsanto- everyone. They’re partnered with everyone. For them, every humanitarian project is a data collection operation. They are experiments with human subjects who have no clue what’s going on. | Examples of Unethical Trials
Haitian Farmers Reject Monsanto Donation | FOOD SAFETY NEWS | JUN 7, 2010
Why Seven African Nations Joined Anti-Monsanto Protests Last Weekend | THINKPROGRESS | OCT 17, 2013
Lobbyists for Monsanto, ExxonMobil Raise Money for Hillary Clinton | BLOOMBERG | JUL 17, 2015
Twelve reasons for Africa to reject GM crops | GRAINdotORG | JUL 25, 2004
SPAIN’S BIOTECH CROP UNDER THREAT | WIKILEAKS 09MADRID482 | MAY 19, 2009
1. (U) This is an action request. See paragraph 12. SUMMARY
2. (SBU) Spain’s MON810 corn crop is under threat from an emerging well-coordinated campaign to ban cultivation of genetically engineered seed varieties in Europe, according to industry sources. The campaign has gained strength and speed in recent months with the April 14 German ban on MON810 cultivation – which followed an EU vote supporting maintenance of a ban in Austria and Hungary. Legislation which threatens MON810 cultivation has also been introduced recently in both the Basque and Catalonian Regional Parliaments.
3. (SBU) In response to invocation of a safeguard and emergency measure to suspend MON810 cultivation in France, the European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) Scientific Opinion of October 29, 2008 found no new scientific evidence of risk related to MON810 plantings. The EFSA report, however, is being questioned. Monsanto maintains that anti-MON810 momentum was gained by a de facto agreement between the Government of France and Greenpeace/Friends of the Earth whereby the GOF would support the anti-GMO movement and environmental activists would turn a blind eye to Sarkozy’s nuclear energy initiatives. A senior Spanish agriculture official has expressed concern that Spain is under increasing pressure within the EU. Post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position, as well as support for a non-USG science fellow to interact with Spanish interlocutors. End Summary.
4. (SBU) Spain was the first EU country to grow genetically modified (GM) corn and now cultivates nearly 75 percent of the EU’s MON810 corn crop – nearly 200,000 acres. During a May 13 meeting with Monsanto’s Director for Biotechnology for Spain and Portugal, Embassy officials were told that Spain is increasingly becoming a target of anti-biotechnology forces within Europe and that Spain’s cultivation of MON810 corn was under serious threat. The sentiment echoed by supporters of agricultural biotechnology regarding a ban on MON810 cultivation in Spain is that “If Spain falls, the rest of Europe will follow.”
12. (SBU) ACTION REQUESTED: In response to recent urgent requests by MARM State Secretary Josep Puxeu and Monsanto, post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position through high-level USG intervention in support of the EFSA findings. Post also requests USG support for a non-USG science fellow to meet with influential Spanish interlocutors on this issue and assistance with developing an agricultural biotechnology action plan for Spain. Post would also welcome any comments from other posts concerning the anti-GMO campaign. DUNCAN
Back to Gates and the BMG Foundation
They’re partnered with a company called Synthetic Genomics.
(Coincidentally, Synthetic Genomics is also partnered with Joule Unlimited, the biofuel company formerly chaired by Podesta, but I digress.)
Animal-to-human organ transplants, known as xenotransplantation, might sound like extraordinary stuff, but Rothblatt has the track record for innovation, the intellectual curiosity, and the deep pockets needed to do pioneering research in this area.
Enter Martine Rothblatt. When she was a he, she wrote her thesis about the intersection of ethics, economics, and- xenotransplantation.
She is the Founder, CEO & Chairman of United Therapeutics | SYNTHETIC GENOMICS
Polymath Martine Rothblatt turns to transplants | FORTUNE
United Therapeutics has teamed up with Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics, a biotech company based in La Jolla, Calif., to develop pigs with genetically modified organs — for transplantation into humans.
Modified pigs to grow humanized lungs | SAN DIEGO TRIBUNE
In a move filled with the promise of scientific innovation but also the prospect of controversy, a La Jolla company is set to announce Tuesday that it will join forces with a biotech firm to create pigs with lungs and other organs that are compatible for transplantation into humans.
The local company is Synthetic Genomics, led by J. Craig Venter, whose world-famous feats include sequencing the human genome. Its partner in the new venture will be Lung Biotechnology — a subsidiary of United Therapeutics, which has a market value of $5.1 billion.
Synthetic Genomics will get a $50 million investment under the research and development agreement, along with milestone payments and royalties from any sales, according to the companies.
Synthetic Genomics plans to use its genomic modification tools to produce pig cells compatible with human immune systems, said Venter, its chairman and CEO.
United Therapeutics — of Silver Spring, Md. — intends to use those cells to make embryos that would be grown into pigs with transplantable organs.
LOBBYING FEES PAID TO PODESTA GROUP
2008 | Synthetic Genomics | $200,000
2009 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2010 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2011 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2012 | Synthetic Genomics | $170,000
2013 | Synthetic Genomics | $100,000
2014 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2015 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2016 | Synthetic Genomics | $90,000
Sounds like a great industry for human testing, which really would be nothing new | WIKIPEDIA PAGE
Getting back to the Clintons.
Clinton Health Access Initiative opened for business in South Africa in 2003. | WIKILEAKS
They brokered the distribution of vital pharmaceutical resources and established “public-private” partnerships in the healthcare industry to formulate public policy, implement planning and monitor the implementation of the programs. The main focuses were HIV/AIDS & Malaria.
South Africa has a public health care system and a private system. The public system, as expected, is terrible. The only people with access to the private sector are- you guessed it, the wealthy. (
South Africa is being exploited by the international drug companies to boost patient numbers and that the trials provide no long-term benefit for either the patients or local research staff | The Clinical Trials Industry in South Africa: Ethics, Rules and Realities
Given the current state of South Africa’s struggling public health sector, it is clear that in many cases, people are not in a position to access or afford the medicines or specialist treatment they may need. Therefore the opportunity to participate in clinical trials and receive treatment for free is a tempting proposition for many | Clinical Trials in SA
INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN – DIRECTOR
Andre is a private investor. He serves as the Executive Chairman of C5 Partners, a specialist technology investment company. He also serves as the Deputy Chairman of the Advisory Council of Cranemere Inc, a permanent capital industrial investment company.
He founded and served as the Group CEO of the Good Governance Group (G3) (2004-2014), a consulting firm that advises global companies and international law firms on foreign direct investment, compliance and cybersecurity.
He serves as a trustee of the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation, a charity focused on wildlife conservation. Andre is also a Council Member of the African Union Foundation, a charitable organisation emerging from the African Union which works to mobilise domestic resources for Africa’s development. Andre is Founder and Chairman of the Leadership Technology Centre, a charitable organisation which aims to facilitate the provision of technologies and services to community and charity leaders.
Andre is an Advocate of the Supreme Court of South Africa.
|Good Governance Group (G3)||Founder|
|C5 Capital (partnered with Amazon Web Services)||Founder|
|Kroll||Manager, Africa & Natural Resources Division|
|BAE Systems||Contractor for BAE through C5 Capital|
|United States Institute of Peace||Board of Advisors|
Kenya Joins Nations Pursuing Funds Stolen by Ex-Leaders | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 21, 2003
To loot their treasuries, corrupt African leaders have used both simple suitcases and complex financial schemes. But stealing the money has always been far easier than bringing it back home.
After recently locating $1 billion in looted taxpayer money hidden overseas, Kenya has begun an uphill effort to reclaim the funds believed stolen during the administration of the former president, Daniel arap Moi. Kenyan officials hope they will gain pointers from the failed attempts of their neighbors.
Congo came up virtually empty in its attempt to recover money stolen by Mobutu Seso Seko, the dictator who was chased out by rebels in 1997, and Nigeria is still trying to get its hands on huge sums stashed away in foreign accounts by Sani Abacha, a military ruler who died in 1998.
Across Africa, other governments are engaged in similar frustrating efforts. The searches highlight theft on a huge scale, but the hopeful note is that new, more democratic governments are trying to hunt down this money for the public good.
”It’s a tough task to get the money back,” said Andre Pienaar, who oversees the African office of Kroll Inc., which has traced stolen funds for many governments, including Kenya. ”Untangling a corrupt economy is a painful surgical process. It takes a long time and it’s not always clear the patient will survive.”
Inside the corporate intelligence company which bankrolled Liam Fox | THE TELEGRAPH
A South African intelligence expert made payments of as much as £60,000 through his security company for an unregistered charity linked to Dr Liam Fox.
Michael Chertoff | BAE Systems | DECISION SCIENCES
The Democrats Dirty Secret
1. Hansjorg Wyss
Billionaire CEO of Synthes USA
In 2009, top executives at Synthes were indicted by U.S. Attorneys for Eastern Pennsylvania for using an untested calcium-phosphate-based bone cement on human patients without the authorization from the Food and Drug Administration, which resulted in the deaths of three people. Wyss was not indicted but four of Synthes’ top executives were convicted and sentenced to prison terms.
‘Bad to the bone: A medical horror story’ | FORTUNE | SEP 18, 2012
When medical device company Synthes decided to illegally test a bone cement on people, the results were disastrous. A disturbing tale of corporate crime and punishment.
Synthes not only disregarded multiple warnings that it was flouting the rules, but also brushed off scientists’ cautions that the cement could cause fatal blood clots.
Liberal groups refuse to talk about links to funder with tainted history of illegal human experiments | WASHINGTON EXAMINER | JUL 29, 2014
Swiss billionaire Hansjorg Wyss, whose former company conducted illegal human experiments where three elderly patients died.
The Examiner reported July 23 that John Podesta received $87,000 as a paid consultant to a Wyss-controlled foundation before joining President Obama’s inner circle of White House advisers.
Podesta has also benefited from the more than $4 million Wyss has given to the Center for American Progress since 2008.
Podesta was the founding president of CAP and remains as chairman of its board of directors, which also includes Wyss, former Secretary of State Madeline Albright; former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D; and former Obama White House energy czar Carol Browner.
The loyalty appears to be reciprocated, as liberal groups continue to remain silent about their acceptance of millions of dollars in donations from the reclusive Swiss billionaire even as CEO Wyss conducted abhorrent human experiments.
Wyss, who was Synthes CEO and majority stockholder at the time of the indictment, sold Synthes to Johnson & Johnson in 2012 for $21.3 billion.
The Wyss Foundation donated $1,000,001 – $5,000,000 to the Clinton Foundation
Since early 2007, the company has received three Warning Letters from the Food & Drug Administration citing issues in compliancy.
The first of these, a seven-page correspondence, named various issues at an Irish manufacturing facility, such as untimely fix of failures and procedural noncompliance in the testing of failed or otherwise problem-prone devices.
The second, sent November 2007, cites issues at the firm’s Mahwah, New Jersey, facility, including poor fixation of hip implant components, in some instances requiring mitigation by revision surgeries; exceeded microbial level violations in the cleaning and final packaging areas of the sterile implants; and failure to institute measures in prevention of recurrence of these and other problems.
The final warning letter, sent April 2008, cites issues at the firm’s Hopkinton, MA biotechnology facility. Again, issues relate to quality and noncompliance including falsification of documents relevant to the selling of products to hospitals which are to be sold under a limited, government-mandated basis. Stryker maintains that employees involved in the falsification of documents have since been terminated.
What happened in Libya was an extra-judicial war by NATO of the kind he would not repeat himself in the manner it was handled by The Obama administration. He is angry and appalled that a total of 3 embassies were destroyed by islamic terrorists under the Clinton’s watch since the 1990s. We are watching Qatar and will deal with them appropriately, they are a two faced ally they do much to help but also host and harbor many who want to harm us including terrorists and hostile TV/media companies
1998 | DAR ES SALAAM | TANZANIA (next)
TANZANIA | CIA | UPDATED JAN 12, 2017
One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers’ claims of voting irregularities.
The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar’s two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya).
Bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world’s second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world’s second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest.
Trafficking in Persons:
Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.
The exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem.
Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats.
Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US.
Internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs.
Trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked.
Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.
Granted exemption from downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law;
Authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)
Lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests.
Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years.
However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population.
Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities.
Tanzania is one of the world’s poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism.
Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession.
Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a “market economy”, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as:
The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force.
Agriculture accounts for 7% of government expenditures.
All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.
The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry’s total assets.
The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania’s aging infrastructure, including rail and port, that provide important trade links for inland countries.
In 2013, Tanzania completed the world’s largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million, and, in December 2014, the Millennium Challenge Corporation selected Tanzania for a second Compact.
In late 2014, a highly publicized scandal in the energy sector involving senior Tanzanian officials resulted in international donors freezing nearly $500 million in direct budget support to the government.
German government funding | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 53308 | MAR 3, 2012
“As you may know, the German Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development, Dr. Dirk Niebel, sent a letter to WJC on Feb 17, suggesting a meeting to discuss partnership. [This is the arm of the German government that funds development projects overseas.]”
“Their priorities are education, entrepreneurship, and clean energy, and their priority regions are Africa and Asia. We honed in on three areas of overlapping interest: (1) CDI, (2) CCI in cities, and (3) islands’ adaptation to climate change.”
“Besides funding for CDI, we also discussed them sharing with us the lessons they have learned on value-add agri-businesses elsewhere in Africa.”
Howard Buffet | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 52883 | MAR 16, 2012
To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com CC: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Date: 2012-03-16 13:34 Subject: Howard Buffett
Had a good call today with Howard Buffett. Like WJC, he talked about strengthening agriculture (sustainably) in developing countries in Africa, Latin/Central America, and beyond; and also in reconfiguring US food aid to enable more local purchasing of food aid rather than shipping US farm produce overseas. [Besides running his farm, he runs farms in South Africa and Central America and is currently a UN WFP Ambassador and advocate for their Purchase for Progress initiative.] He was surprised to learn there are so many shared interests. We discussed a few areas of possible future collaboration, all of which effectively are either “talking” or “doing,” on which I’d welcome your feedback:
COUNTRY VISIT. We discussed WJC’s agriculture work in Rwanda/Malawi/Peru/Colombia and he is intrigued. He said he’s visiting South Africa (where he runs a 9,000 acre farm) in August and would like to visit Malawi/Rwanda to see CF projects. We can help facilitate his visit. I didn’t mention WJC’s Africa trip but should we consider a joint-visit whenever WJC goes? [He liked the Neno wheat example of working ourselves out of a job.]
– CDI. Funding for scaling-up commercial farms in Malawi/Tanzania. I explained our interest in growing the program, he said he’d like to work together given a lot of shared interests, and that he’ll be able to make a decision after seeing our work first-hand. Whenever he visits Malawi, we should be prepared with a specific ask.
CARLOS SLIM. He said he has been in discussions with Marco about doing joint agriculture work in Mexico and he asked if we’d be open to discussing it and to WJC being involved as the convener. I said we work with Slim as well and that we’d be happy to discuss it together.
He is writing a book and would like to profile WJC’s agriculture work (we discussed Malawi). I said we’d be happy to discuss it further and provide him with more information about the projects. – CGI. He’s going to try to come to CGI in September. He said it’s right around corn harvest so he doesn’t like being away from his farm but he will try to come for one day.
He asked if there any appetite to do joint advocacy on agriculture issues – most notably US food aid. I tried to bring it back to CGI as an opportunity for him to share his message there under the umbrella of CGI. It would be good to give him information on any agriculture-related programming or action networks being contemplated for September, for him to weigh-in on.
Hope this helps, and I’d welcome your feedback. Thanks, Ami
New generation of African leaders
The term “new generation” or “new breed” of African leaders was a buzzword widely used in the mid-late 1990s to express optimism in a new generation of African leadership. It has since fallen out of favor, along with several of the leaders the term was used for.
When US president Bill Clinton made his African journey in March 1998, he helped popularize this notion when he said he placed hope in a new generation of African leaders devoted to democracy and economic reforms. Although Clinton did not identify the African leaders by name, it is generally assumed that he was referring to, among others, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia and Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea.