“Donations” to the Clinton Foundation

OCP Corporation (Morocco) $1,000,001 – $5,000,000
BMCE Bank (Morocco) $100,001 – $250,000


Kingdom of Morocco requests permission to purchase 200 M1A1 Abrams Tanks | DSCA | JUN 18, 2012

The prime contractor will be General Dynamics Land Systems in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Estimated cost $1.015 billion.

Morocco receives Abrams tanks from U.S. Army | ARMY.MIL | AUG 22, 2016

Twenty-two M1A1 (situational awareness configuration) Abrams tanks were officially handed over to the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces during a ceremony in Nouaceur, Morocco, July 26.

An additional 200 vehicles will be delivered to the Moroccan Army through the United States’ foreign military sales program and will include radios, training ammunition, spare parts, tools and test equipment, personnel training, training aids and simulators.

WIKILEAKS: Hillary Got $12 Million for Clinton Charity As Quid Pro Quo For Morocco Meeting | DAILYCALLER | OCT 10, 2016

The Moroccan monarch’s funds went to the Clinton Foundation’s endowment and to CGI.

The actual meeting was paid for by OCP, the Moroccan-government-owned mining company that has been accused of serious human rights violations. Clinton vigorously supported the Moroccan King as Secretary of State and the U.S.-financed Export-Import Bank gave OCP a $92 million loan guarantee during her tenure.

The mining company also contributed between $5 million to $10 million to the Clinton Foundation, according to the charity’s web site.

The Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice charged OCP with “serious human rights violations,” including exploitation of workers by not “adequately compensating the impoverished people who live there.”

“OCP is the first beneficiary of the war and the first beneficiary of the occupation — it is the one that is cashing in on the misery of thousands of refugees and hundreds of political detainees for the past 40 years.”

Donald Trump accuses Hillary Clinton of ‘pay for play’ in Morocco after email hack | CNN | OCT 21, 2016

Donald Trump on Friday accused his rival Hillary Clinton of engaging in “pay for play” for accepting an invitation to speak at a Clinton Global Initiative event in Morocco in exchange for a $12 million donation pledge to the Clinton Foundation from that country’s king.

Fox News Just Landed A Brutal, Clean Hit On Hillary Clinton’s Campaign | HUFFINGTON POST | OCT 23, 2016

In the beforetime, in the long, long ago of 2015, a woman named Hillary Clintonwas about to launch her campaign for president. She was also trying really hard to secure $12 million for her family’s charitable foundation from King Mohammed VI of Morocco. And her campaign was freaking out about it.

Campaign manager Robby Mook and longtime Clinton confidant John Podesta thought the deal ― in which Clinton had committed to speak at an event for the king on the condition of his $12 million donation ― would look bad. Clinton aide Huma Abedin tried to explain that it was simply too late to back out.

“This was HRC’s idea,” Abedin wrote in an email to Podesta. “Our office approached the Moroccans and they 100 percent believe they are doing this at her request. The King has personally committed approx $12 million both for the endowment and to support the meeting. It will break a lot of china to back out now when we had so many opportunities to do it in the past few months.”

My apologies | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 4335 | NOV 19, 2014

Email correspondence between Huma Abedin, Cheryl Mills, John Podesta, Robby Mook, Jake Sullivan regarding the Clinton Global Initiative meeting in Morocco Huma Abedin:

“Morocco: No matter what happens, she will be in Morocco hosting CGI on May 5-7, 2015. Her presence was a condition for the Moroccans to proceed so there is no going back on this. Important that you know background.



“Just to give you some context, the condition upon which the Moroccans agreed to host the meeting was her participation.”

“This was HRC’s idea, our office approached the Moroccans and they 100 percent believe they are doing this at her request. The King has personally committed approx $12 million both for the endowment and to support the meeting.”

“She created this mess and she knows it.”

Why was that meeting so important to Clinton?

Controversial Clinton-Tied Moroccan Mining Firm Supported by Ex-Im Bank | FREE BEACON | MAY 15, 2015

A controversial state-owned Moroccan mining firm that has poured money into Hillary Clinton’s foundation has received more than $92 million in U.S. taxpayer support, public records show.

The firm, OCP, has been accused of violating U.S. and international law. According to a Friday report in Politico, it has also donated $6 million to the Bill, Hillary, and Chelsea Clinton Foundation.

In September, the U.S. Export-Import Bank guaranteed a $92 million Citibank loan to OCP to purchase equipment from two American manufacturers.

That federal support came despite controversial practices by the state-owned company, detailed by Politico in a story on the Clinton Foundation’s OCP-sponsored event in Marrakech.

Former employees of the company decried what they described as its discriminatory and abusive practices.

They say the company, formerly called the Office Chérifien des Phosphates, forced them to retire early and slashed their pensions, leaving them struggling to scrape by while hiring ethnic Moroccans for more senior jobs. The miners also told me how they had witnessed first-hand multiple examples of the “arbitrary and prolonged detention” and “physical and verbal abuse” that the U.S. State Department says Moroccan authorities mete out to Sahrawis advocating for independence in Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara.


This week the Clinton Foundation held an event at a five-star luxury hotel in Morocco.

The event was hosted and funded by OCP, a Moroccan government-owned mining corporation that has been criticized for “serious human rights violations” by the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice, specifically for removing resources “without adequately compensating the impoverished people who live there.”

The lavish conference for major American politicians aside, OCP also managed to secure more than $92 million in Export-Import Bank subsidies in 2014 alone. And, in yet another coincidence, Democrat presidential candidate Hillary Clinton remains a staunch Ex-Im supporter. It was great deal for this company, the Moroccan government, and the Clintons—but a bad deal for American taxpayers.

Freedom Partners spokesman James Davis issued the following statement:

“American taxpayers are subsidizing the foreign corporation that funded this week’s Clinton Foundation event. The Export-Import Bank authorized more than $92 million in subsidies for OCP, a foreign government-owned mining corporation, and somehow the company can afford to pump more than $1 million into the Clinton Foundation. It’s no wonder Hillary Clinton supports the New Deal-era program: the bank props up foreign companies, and foreign companies prop up the Clinton Foundation. We urge Congress to take a principled stand against Ex-Im instead of with Hillary Clinton and the corporate special interests pushing for its reauthorization.”

This Week’s Clinton Foundation Event Was Funded By A Multimillion-Dollar Foreign Ex-Im Beneficiary:

The State-Owned Corporation Funded The Event With More Than $1 Million. “The Clinton Foundation is accepting a major donation from a Moroccan government-owned company to hold a high-profile conference next month in Marrakech with the king of Morocco — an event likely to reignite concerns about the foundation’s acceptance of foreign money just as Hillary Clinton prepares to announce her presidential candidacy. . . . The event is being funded largely by a contribution of at least $1 million from OCP, a phosphate exporter owned by Morocco’s constitutional monarchy, according to multiple sources with direct knowledge of the event.” (Kenneth Vogel, “Moroccan Cash Flows To Clinton Foundation,” Politico, 04/08/15)

Moroccan cash flows to Clinton Foundation | POLITICO | APR 8, 2015

During her State Department tenure, Clinton visited Morocco, and later launched an ongoing U.S.-Morocco strategic dialogue (the latest installment of which is set to occur in Washington this week), praising the country in 2012 “as a leader and a model.”

Clinton Foundation limits foreign donations | POLITICO | APR 15, 2015

The lavish conference for major American politicians aside, OCP also managed to secure more than $92 million in Export-Import Bank subsidies in 2014 alone.

And, in yet another coincidence, Democrat presidential candidate Hillary Clinton remains a staunch Ex-Im supporter. It was great deal for this company, the
Moroccan government, and the Clintons—but a bad deal for American taxpayers.

King Mohammed reportedly gave money directly to the Clinton Presidential Library. | THE NEW YORK SUN | NOV 22, 2004

The New York Sun reported back in 2004 that King Mohammed VI personally gave between $100,000 – $500,000 to the Clinton Foundation. The record of this donation has since been scrubbed from the Foundation website.

Morocco is an international trafficking hub | CIA

One of the world’s largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis

Phosphates– Morocco is the number one producer of phosphates and phosphate products. | BLOOMBERG

Sarin, mustard and VX gases are common chemical weapons. Sarin and VX are organophosphate compounds.


German Jailed for Aiding Libya’s Chemical Weapons Program | AP | OCT 1, 1996

The United States accused Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi of building the world’s largest underground chemical weapons plant in a mountain at Tarhunah, 40 miles southeast of Tripoli.

In the 1980s, German companies helped build the largest chemical weapons factory in the world. Libya said it was designed to produce drugs, not poison gas.


Current Libya situation:

Clinton and Obama overthrew the Libyan government, sending Libya into chaos.

The United Nations imposed an arms embargo on Libya.

We lost track of Gadhafi’s weapons, including chemical weapons. It turns out he had more than we knew about.

Obama and Clinton gave many of them to ISIS using a Qatari arms trafficking network. The rest were up for grabs.

Beyond Gadhafi’s weapons, Obama gave Qatar his approval to transfer of 20,000 tons of weapons from Qatar to… Well we’re not exactly sure who still. Basically everyone.

Since then, The Obama Administration has approved over $9 billion in US arms exports to Qatar.

Libya is now a strong hold for ISIS.

ISIS is controlling the human trafficking network in Libya, profiting immensely.

Libya, the country that once acted as the gatekeep for Europe, has become a major immigration hub for emigrants headed to Europe.

Some of Gadhafi’s Sarin gas was taken to Syria, and used.

Obama and Clinton were working behind the scenes to topple Assad’s government in Syria.



Libya’s government no longer exists and the country is in chaos. | BBC

Drug And Human Trafficking In ‘Lawless’ Libya Is Funding Isis | IB TIMES

Calm Seas, Libya’s Lawless State Open Door For Migrant Flows | REUTERS

‘Real armed commando’: Police bust ISIS terror cell preparing ‘chemical attack’ in Morocco | RT

Why Is Libya So Lawless? | BBC

ISIS now has a foothold in Libya. | BBC

Top ISIS commanders are taking refuge in Libya. | BBC

Islamic State is planning to use Libya as a gateway to Europe. | TELEGRAPH

Under Clinton’s leadership, the State Department approved $165 billion worth of commercial arms sales to 20 nations whose governments have given money to the Clinton Foundation | IBTIMES

Clinton Charity Received About $12,000,000 from the King of Morocco and Various Moroccan Owned Entities | DAILYCALLER | CNN | HUFFPOST

‘How US Ambassador Chris Stevens May Have Been Linked To Jihadist Rebels In Syria’ | BIZ INSIDER

Muslim Brotherhood Official, Former Clinton Foundation Employee Arrested | FREE BEACON | WA TIMES



Libyan leader colonel muammar gaddafi is demanding £4.1billion a year from the eu to stop illegal immigration which ‘threatens to turn europe black’. DAILY MAIL Aug 31, 2010
U.S. evacuees aboard ferry finally arrive in Malta NBC NEWS Feb 25, 2011
LIBYA: Britain sends military to rescue 150 citizens from Libyan desert, closes embassy LA TIMES Feb 26, 2011
Security Council imposes sanctions on Libyan authorities in bid to stem violent repression UN NEWS CENTRE Feb 26, 2011
Susan Rice: Gadhafi ‘delusional’ THE HILL Feb 28, 2011
US Names Chris Stevens Liaison to Libyan Opposition ABC NEWS Mar 14, 2011
Obama Takes Hard Line With Libya After Shift by Clinton NEW YORK TIMES Mar 18, 2011
Behind Obama’s turnaround on Libya POLITICO Mar 21, 2011
U.S. To Transfer Lead In Libya In ‘Days,’ Obama Says WBUR NEWS Mar 22, 2011
Arming Libya rebels not allowed by UN resolutions, legal experts warn US THE GUARDIAN Mar 30, 2011
Arming Libya rebels not allowed by UN resolutions, legal experts warn US  THE GUARDIAN  Mar 30, 2011
Is General Khalifa Hifter The CIA’s Man In Libya?  BUSINESS INSIDER  Apr 22, 2011
Susan Rice: Gaddafi troops raping, issued Viagra REUTERS Apr 29, 2011
Map of the Rebellion in Libya, Day by Day NEW YORK TIMES Apr 29, 2011
Counting Qaddafi’s Heat-Seeking Missiles, and Tracking Them Back to their Sources  NEW YORK TIMES  Jul 26, 2011
NATO bombs the Great Man-Made River HUMAN RIGHTS INVESTIGATIONS Jul 27, 2011
Nightmare In Libya: Thousands Of Surface-To-Air Missiles Unaccounted For ABC Sep 27, 2011
Tiny Kingdom’s Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern  WALL STREET JOURNAL  Oct 17, 2011
In Tripoli, Clinton Pledges U.S. Help to a ‘Free Libya’ NEW YORK TIMES Oct 18, 2011
Muammar Gaddafi’s violent death leaves Libya at a crossroads THE GUARDIAN Oct 20, 2011
A long 8 months in Libya  CNN  Oct 20, 2011
Strong words at U.N. after Syria veto CNN Feb 5, 2012
Amb. Rice says Russia, China will ‘come to regret’ vetoing UN Syria resolution THE HILL Feb 6, 2012
Rice: Libya attacks spontaneous CBS Sep 16, 2012
How US Ambassador Chris Stevens May Have Been Linked To Jihadist Rebels In Syria  BUSINESS INSIDER  Oct 19, 2012
Was Syrian weapons shipment factor in ambassador’s Benghazi visit?  FOX NEWS  Oct 25, 2012
Libyan charity’s ship implicated in Benghazi attack on US ambassador  MALTA TODAY  Oct 31, 2012
There’s A Reason Why All Of The Reports About Benghazi Are So Confusing  BUSINESS INSIDER  Nov 3, 2012
Congress to investigate CIA talking points on Benghazi CBS Nov 19, 2012
House Republicans “deeply troubled” by Rice CBS Nov 19, 2012
Sources: Office of the DNI (Clapper) cut “al Qaeda” reference from Benghazi talking points, and CIA, FBI signed off CBS Nov 20, 2012
Backed by Obama, sharp-tongued Susan Rice battles critics REUTERS Nov 24, 2012
Susan Rice meets Tuesday with John McCain, Lindsey Graham, Kelly Ayotte WASHINGTON POST Nov 26, 2012
Republican senators say Rice meeting just leaves more questions unanswered FOX NEWS Nov 27, 2012
Susan Rice’s Senate Opponents Voted for Resolution on Benghazi Protests THE ATLANTIC Dec 4, 2012
U.S.-Approved Arms for Libya Rebels Fell Into Jihadis’ Hands NEW YORK TIMES Dec 5, 2012
US OK’d sending arms to Libya  BOSTON GLOBE  Dec 6, 2012
REPORT: The US Is Openly Sending Heavy Weapons From Libya To Syrian Rebels  BUSINESS INSIDER  Dec 9, 2012
Covert US plan to arm rebels  THE SUNDAY TIMES  Dec 9, 2012
Libya’s “Water Wars” and Gaddafi`s Great Man-Made River Project GLOBAL RESEARCH May 13, 2013
Benghazi timeline: How the attack unfolded CBS May 13, 2013
Turkey fights to stem arms smuggling  THE NATIONAL  May 27, 2013
In Turnabout, Syria Rebels Get Libyan Weapons  NEW YORK TIMES  Jun 21, 2013
Susan Rice joins White House as National Security Advisor ECONOMIC TIMES  Jul 2, 2013
Muslim Brotherhood Official, Former Clinton Foundation Employee Arrested  FREE BEACON  Sep 18, 2013
Muslim Brotherhood official, former Clinton Foundation employee arrested in Cairo  WASHINGTON TIMES  Sep 18, 2013
A Deadly Mix in Benghazi NY TIMES Dec 28, 2013
Benghazi attack caused by anti-Muslim film, Al-Qaeda not involved – report RT Dec 29, 2013
‘Libya’s Cache of Toxic Arms All Destroyed’ NYT Feb 2, 2014
Khalifa Haftar: renegade general causing upheaval in Libya THE GUARDIAN May 22, 2014
‘Abandoned’ barrels containing deadly sarin seized in rebel-held Syria  RT  Jul 8, 2014
How Qatar is funding the rise of Islamist extremists  TELEGRAPH  Sep 20, 2014
Libya’s Arab spring: the revolution that ate its children THE GUARDIAN Feb 16, 2015
UK envoy: if Libya fails it could be Somalia on the Mediterranean THE GUARDIAN Feb 16, 2015
Libya’s descent into violence – the Guardian briefing THE GUARDIAN Feb 16, 2015
Was The 2011 Libya Intervention A Mistake  THE WORLD POST  Mar 7, 2015
American Among Nearly 40 Sentenced to Life in Prison for Egypt Protests  NEW YORK TIMES  Apr 11, 2015
The king of Morocco, the Clintons and a problem that just won’t go away  POLITICO  May 15, 2015
Controversial Clinton-Tied Moroccan Mining Firm Supported by Ex-Im Bank  FREE BEACON  May 15, 2015
Defense, State Department Documents Reveal Obama Administration Knew that al Qaeda Terrorists Had Planned Benghazi Attack 10 Days in Advance  JUDICIAL WATCH  May 18, 2015
Military intel predicted rise of ISIS in 2012, detailed arms shipments from Benghazi to Syria  FOX NEWS  May 18, 2015
Hillary Clinton Knew BACK IN 2011 About US Weapons Shipments from Libya to Syria  GATEWAY PUNDIT  May 27, 2015
Al Qaeda-Linked Terrorist Targeted By US Military In Libya Airstrike, Pentagon Says IB TIMES Jun 14, 2015
ISIS Trained Tunisian Militants: Libya Has Long Been A Haven For Islamic State, Al Qaeda Training Camps IB TIMES Jul 1, 2015
Drug And Human Trafficking In ‘Lawless’ Libya Is Funding ISIS IB TIMES Jul 16, 2015
Clinton’s Man in Morocco  FREE BEACON  Jul 17, 2015
Clinton State Department approved U.S. weapons shipment to Libya despite ban  REUTERS  Oct 20, 2015
How the west broke Libya and returned it to the hatred of the past THE GUARDIAN Oct 22, 2015
Weapons shipments highlight the ambiguous roles of Qatar and Turkey in the fight against Islamic militants  ITALY 24  Dec 2, 2015
Sarin materials brought via Turkey & mixed in Syrian ISIS camps – Turkish MP to RT  RT  Dec 14, 2015
Top is commanders ‘taking refuge’ in libya BBC Feb 4, 2016
Why Libya matters– again  FOREIGN POLICY  Feb 12, 2016
‘Real armed commando’: Police bust ISIS terror cell preparing ‘chemical attack’ in Morocco  RT  Feb 20, 2016
‘NATO turned Libya into a destroyed state, not a failed state’ RT Feb 25, 2016
Seymour Hersh Says Hillary Approved Sending Libya’s Sarin to Syrian Rebels  STRATEGIC CULTURE  Apr 28, 2016
U.N. approves high seas crackdown on Libya arms smuggling  REUTERS  Jun 14, 2016
US air raids in Libya: Who really benefits?  RT  Aug 2, 2016
Calm seas, Libya’s lawless state open door for migrant flows REUTERS Aug 31, 2016
As ISIS closed in, a race to remove chemical-weapon precursors in Libya WA POST Sep 13, 2016
Why is Libya so lawless? BBC Sep 14, 2016
Obama DOJ drops charges against alleged broker of Libyan weapons POLITICO Oct 5, 2016
Hillary’s Benghazi Coverup Threatens Terror Prosecutions  NATIONAL REVIEW  Oct 7, 2016
Arms dealer says Clinton and Obama accidentally gave guns to ISIS, Al Qaeda and Benghazi attackers – then tried to scapegoat him for their screw-up with failed $10m felony case  DAILY MAIL  Oct 12, 2016
Libyan general Khalifa Haftar meets Russian minister to seek help THE GUARDIAN Nov 29, 2016
Malta’s Contribution for the destruction of Libya’s Chemical Weapons Precursors recognized by the OPCW  MALTA FOREIGN AFFAIRS  Dec 2, 2016
Libyan forces seize last stronghold of Islamic State in Sirte LA TIMES Dec 7, 2016
Libya’s UN-backed government and central bank to work together  THE NATIONAL  Jan 1, 2017
Khalifa Haftar says Russia ‘to fight Libyan arms embargo’  THE NATIONAL  Jan 3, 2017
EU reaches out to Russia to broker deal with Libyan general Haftar THE GUARDIAN Feb 9, 2017
NGO rescues off Libya encourage traffickers, says EU borders chief THE GUARDIAN Feb 27, 2017
Libya falls back into civil war as rival sides fight to control oil terminals THE GUARDIAN Mar 7, 2017


A closer look the WMDs & Qatar’s ‘help’

Nightmare In Libya: Thousands Of Surface-To-Air Missiles Unaccounted For | ABC | SEP 27, 2011

The White House announced today it planned to expand a program to secure and destroy Libya’s huge stockpile of dangerous surface-to-air missiles, following an ABC News report that large numbers of them continue to be stolen from unguarded military warehouses.

“I think the probability of al Qaeda being able to smuggle some of the stinger-like missiles out of Libya is probably pretty high,” said Richard Clarke, former White House counterterrorism advisor and now a consultant to ABC News.

Just so you understand, the White House announcement came after the ABC News report.

‘Libya’s Cache of Toxic Arms All Destroyed’ | NYT | FEB 2, 2014

Since November, Libyan contractors trained in Germany and Sweden have worked to destroy the weapons in a region where extremists linked to Al Qaeda are gaining greater influence. The last artillery shell was destroyed on Jan. 26, officials said.

Libyan officials announced the discovery in November 2011 and February 2012 of two hidden caches of mustard, or nearly two tons, that had not been declared by Colonel Qaddafi’s government That brought the total declared amount of chemical to 26.3 tons.

Unlike the majority of Libya’s mustard agents, which were stored in large, bulky containers, the new caches were already armed and loaded.

Keep this in mind: Autopsy Reveals Why Two Died on ‘Captain Phillips’ Ship | TIME | FEB 25, 2014

An autopsy revealed that the two former NAVY Seals found dead last week onboard the Maersk Alabama—the container ship that inspired the movie Captain Phillips—died of respiratory failure and suspected heart attacks.

Seychelles police said Tuesday that they are investigating whether the two 44-year-old American security officers consumed a substance that triggered the failure. “The police preliminary investigation report includes suspicion of drug use, as indicated by the presence of a syringe and traces of heroin which were found in the cabin,” police said in a statement.

The deceased, Jeffrey Reynolds and Mark Kennedy, were hired to deter pirates. The ship was hijacked in 2009 off the coast of East Africa. Those events inspired the 2013 Oscar nominated film Captain Philips.

Different event, but keep this in mind also: Families of Navy SEALs killed in 2011 attack say government is to blame | FOX NEWS | MAY 10, 2013

The families of Navy SEAL Team 6 members killed in a disastrous August 2011 helicopter crash in Afghanistan blamed the government for the tragedy, during an emotional press conference in Washington Thursday.The family members, speaking at the National Press Club, tried to reopen the book on the crash, in which 30 Americans were killed, most of them belonging to the same unit as those who carried out the raid on Usama bin Laden earlier that year. The helicopter was shot down by insurgents.During the event organized by a group called Freedom Watch, family members and former military personnel claimed President Obama turned the SEALs group into a Taliban target after the administration revealed they had conducted the bin Laden raid.

Doug Hamburger, whose son Patrick was killed, called the incident an “ambush” that could have been prevented.“We’re very concerned that the administration had disclosed that the Navy SEALs had carried out a successful attack on bin Laden’s compound resulting in his death. And you know, never before in the history of our county (had) a sitting president released that type of information to the public, especially when he was talking about special forces. Their names and their missions had never been revealed before. And we really feel that this put our guys in an unnecessary risk,” Hamburger said.

Again, keep this is mind: Obama stonewalls SEAL Team 6 helicopter crash probe, watchdog says | WASHINGTON TIMES | AUG 5, 2015

The Obama administration is violating a judge’s order to turn over documents in the Aug. 6, 2011, shootdown of a U.S. helicopter — call sign Extortion 17 — that killed members of SEAL Team 6 in Afghanistan, a watchdog group is charging.

On the fourth anniversary of the worst one-day loss of military life in the war on terror, families of the dead say they are aghast that the government will not honor basic requests under the Freedom of Information Act.

“It has now been four years since Extortion 17 was shot down,” said Doug Hamburger, whose Army air crew son, Patrick, was one of the 30 Americans killed. “I find it quite disturbing that the government is not willing to give us the answers we deserve. I find it very irritating that we will not question the Afghans about their knowledge of what took place that night.”

Returning to Libya:

As ISIS closed in, a race to remove chemical-weapon precursors in Libya | WA POST | SEP 13, 2016

While some precursor materials were destroyed in 2015, nearly 500 tons of dual-use, toxic industrial chemicals remained at Ruwagha.

In mid-July, Libyan officials piled about 20 barrels onto a small convoy of trucks and drove them across the desert to the coastal city of Misrata.

In late August, the materials were loaded at the port of Misrata onto a Danish ship bound for the German city of Münster.

Dynasafe equipment destroys Libyan chemical weapons | DYNASAFE

Syrian Chemical Weapons Elimination Project | PARSONS

Using $45 million from the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which has helped rid the former Soviet Union of thousands of nuclear weapons since the end of the Cold War, the Pentagon and its Defense Threat Reduction Agency tapped the Parsons Corporation, a construction firm based in Pasadena, Calif., to work with Libya to oversee the rebuilding and safeguarding of the Libyan disposal site, which had been ransacked during the civil war.

Security Council imposes sanctions on Libyan authorities in bid to stem violent repression | UN NEWS CENTRE | FEB 26, 2011

The Security Council today voted unanimously to impose sanctions against the Libyan authorities, slapping the country with an arms embargo and freezing the assets of its leaders, while referring the ongoing violent repression of civilian demonstrators to the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Arming Libya rebels not allowed by UN resolutions, legal experts warn US | THE GUARDIAN | MAR 30, 2011

After Hillary Clinton said it would be legal to send arms to support the uprising, lawyers analysing the terms of the UN’s 26 February arms embargo said it would require a change in the terms for it not to breach international law.

“The embargo appears to cover everybody in the conflict which means you can’t supply arms to rebels,” said Philippe Sands QC, professor of international law at University College London.

Asked whether the US itself would arm Libya revolutionaries, Susan Rice, the US ambassador to the UN, said: “We have not made that decision but we’ve not certainly ruled that out.”

February’s UN security council resolution 1970 on the arms embargo states that all member states must prevent the supply to the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya – the Libyan nation – of arms including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment and spare parts. The embargo also relates to the provision of technical assistance, training or financial and bans the provision of mercenaries.

Lawless: Obama authorizes secret help for Libya rebels | REUTERS | MAR 31, 2011

President Barack Obama has signed a secret order authorizing covert U.S. government support for rebel forces seeking to oust Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, government officials told Reuters on Wednesday.

The CIA, which declined comment on the Obama authorization, has inserted small groups of clandestine operatives to gather intelligence for air strikes as part of a shadow force of Westerners that the United States hopes can help bleed Gadaffi’s military, The New York Times reported, citing unnamed American officials.

In addition to the CIA operatives, dozens of British special forces and MI6 intelligence officers are also working in Libya, the newspaper said.

U.S.-Approved Arms for Libya Rebels Fell Into Jihadis’ Hands | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 5, 2012

WASHINGTON — The Obama administration secretly gave its blessing to arms shipments to Libyan rebels from Qatar last year, but American officials later grew alarmed as evidence grew that Qatar was turning some of the weapons over to Islamic militants, according to United States officials and foreign diplomats.

The experience in Libya has taken on new urgency as the administration considers whether to play a direct role in arming rebels in Syria, where weapons are flowing in from Qatar and other countries.

The Obama administration did not initially raise objections when Qatar began shipping arms to opposition groups in Syria, even if it did not offer encouragement, according to current and former administration officials. But they said the United States has growing concerns that, just as in Libya, the Qataris are equipping some of the wrong militants.

The United States, which had only small numbers of C.I.A. officers in Libya during the tumult of the rebellion, provided little oversight of the arms shipments. Within weeks of endorsing Qatar’s plan to send weapons there in spring 2011, the White House began receiving reports that they were going to Islamic militant groups. They were “more antidemocratic, more hard-line, closer to an extreme version of Islam” than the main rebel alliance in Libya, said a former Defense Department official.

The Qatari assistance to fighters viewed as hostile by the United States demonstrates the Obama administration’s continuing struggles in dealing with the Arab Spring uprisings, as it tries to support popular protest movements while avoiding American military entanglements. Relying on surrogates allows the United States to keep its fingerprints off operations, but also means they may play out in ways that conflict with American interests.

Arms Airlift to Syria Rebels Expands, With Aid From C.I.A. | NEW YORK TIMES | MAR 24, 2013

With help from the C.I.A., Arab governments and Turkey have sharply increased their military aid to Syria’s opposition fighters in recent months, expanding a secret airlift of arms and equipment for the uprising against President Bashar al-Assad, according to air traffic data, interviews with officials in several countries and the accounts of rebel commanders.

How Qatar is funding the rise of Islamist extremists | TELEGRAPH | SEP 20, 2014

Western officials have tracked the Qatari arms flights as they land in the city of Misrata, about 100 miles east of Tripoli, where the Islamist militias have their stronghold. Even after the fall of the capital and the removal of Libya’s government, Qatar is “still flying in weapons straight to Misrata airport”, said a senior Western official.

Boeing Delivers Qatar Emiri Air Force’s 4th C-17 Globemaster III | BOEING | DEC 10, 2012

“The C-17’s reliability, along with its unique strategic and tactical capabilities, has expanded our reach and ability to support missions worldwide on a moment’s notice,” said Brig. Gen. Ahmed Al-Malki, head of Qatar’s airlift committee. “Doubling our fleet strengthens our ability to support humanitarian, disaster-relief and peacekeeping missions.”

Qatar’s C-17s earlier this year supported the NATO-led operation in Libya and provided relief for drought victims in Kenya. In early 2010, QEAF C-17s delivered humanitarian aid to Haiti and Chile following devastating earthquakes.

Qatari arms shipments continued long after the fall of Libyan government in Tripoli, suggesting involvement beyond what was publicly known. 

Tiny Kingdom’s Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern | WALL STREET JOURNAL | OCT 17, 2011

Between APRIL AND AUGUST, at least 18 cargo planes left Qatar for Libya, filled with assault rifles, rocket-propelled grenade launchers and other small arms, as well as military uniforms and vehicles, say people familiar with the situation.

With the blessing of Western intelligence agencies, Qatar flew at least 18 weapons shipments in all to anti-Gadhafi rebel forces in 2012, the majority directly to militias run by Islamist leaders.

About a dozen other Qatari-funded shipments came via Sudan, according to previously undisclosed Libyan intelligence documents.

Further, since these transfers, Qatar has become a major buyer of US military hardware.


After the collapse of the Libyan government, Gadhafi’s arms stockpiles were raided, and arsenals of weapons also found their way into the hands of Islamist rebels in Syria.

In Turnabout, Syria Rebels Get Libyan Weapons | NEW YORK TIMES | JUN 21, 2013

During his more than four decades in power, Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi of Libya was North Africa’s outrageously self-styled arms benefactor, a donor of weapons to guerrillas and terrorists around the world fighting governments he did not like.

Many of the same people who chased the colonel to his grave are busy shuttling his former arms stockpiles to rebels in Syria. The flow is an important source of weapons for the uprising and a case of bloody turnabout, as the inheritors of one strongman’s arsenal use them in the fight against another.

Those weapons, which slipped from state custody as Colonel Qaddafi’s people rose against him in 2011, are sent on ships or Qatar Emiri Air Force flights to a network of intelligence agencies and Syrian opposition leaders in Turkey. From there, Syrians distribute the arms according to their own formulas and preferences to particular fighting groups, which in turn issue them to their fighters on the ground, rebels and activists said.

Qatari C-17 cargo aircraft have made at least three stops in Libya this year — including flights from Mitiga airport in Tripoli on Jan. 15 and Feb. 1, and another that departed Benghazi on April 16, according to flight data provided by an aviation official in the region. The planes returned to Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar. The cargo was then flown to Ankara, Turkey, along with other weapons and equipment that the Qataris had been gathering for the rebels, officials and rebels said.

Eastern Libya Continues Fight Against Gaddafi Forces

Military intel predicted rise of ISIS in 2012, detailed arms shipments from Benghazi to Syria | FOX | MAY 18, 2015

Seventeen months before President Obama dismissed the Islamic State as a “JV team,” a Defense Intelligence Agency report predicted the rise of the terror group and likely establishment of a caliphate if its momentum was not reversed.

Hillary Clinton Knew BACK IN 2011 About US Weapons Shipments from Libya to Syria | GW PUNDIT


In 2013, Hillary Clinton testified before congress that she did not know anything about arms transfers out of Libya. 

‘Abandoned’ barrels containing deadly sarin seized in rebel-held Syria | RT | JUL 8, 2014

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon informed Security Council members on Monday that two cylinders reportedly seized by Syrian government forces in an opposition-held region appeared to contain the deadly nerve agent sarin.

Sarin materials brought via Turkey & mixed in Syrian ISIS camps | RT | DEC 14, 2015

Islamic State terrorists in Syria received all necessary materials to produce deadly sarin gas via Turkey, Turkish MP Eren Erdem has told RT, insisting there are grounds to believe a cover up has taken place.

Weapons were sent to ISIS in Syria via Turkey | BIZ INSIDER | DEC 12, 2012

The Obama administration has decided to launch a covert operation to send heavy weapons to Syrian rebels, Christina Lamb of The Sunday Times of London reports.

Diplomatic sources told the Sunday Times that the U.S. “bought weapons from the stockpiles of Libya’s former dictator Muammar Gaddafi.”

The heavy arms include mortars, rocket propelled grenades, anti-tank missiles and the controversial anti-aircraft heat-seeking SA-7 missiles, which are integral to countering Bashar Al-Assad’s bombing campaign.

Weapons shipments highlight the ambiguous roles of Qatar and Turkey in the fight against Islamic militants | ITALY 24

An investigation by Il Sole 24 Ore-Italy24 shows that Turkey’s and Qatar’s interests are in conflict with those of the West, and that those two countries probably have been arming militant groups associated with terrorists. Our investigation shows also that the United States may have facilitated shipments of weapons to Islamists in Syria, the land of the Caliphate.

For years, Washington has worried about Ankara and Doha arming Islamists both in Libya and in Syria. But a series of flights by military cargo planes reported by The New York Times and investigated by the UN suggests that the US helped them to do so.

The suspicion that those planes were carrying weapons hasn’t yet been supported by hard evidence, but a number of facts have been established. We know for example that the C-17 used for those cargoes belonged to the Qatar Air Force, that the planes’ final destination was Turkey and that a US company provided logistical support for the flights. Not just any US company, but one that was called by the US media “the CIA’s travel agent,” which leads to the conclusion that the cargo of those planes did not consist of humanitarian goods.


“TRIPOLI, Libya (AP) — Tiny Qatar became the first Arab country to fly combat missions over Libya on Friday after NATO agreed to take command of the no-fly zone part of air operations against Moammar Gadhafi’s regime.”


JERUSALEM — The emir of Qatar on Tuesday became the first head of state to visit the Gaza Strip since Hamas took full control of it in 2007, the latest step in an ambitious campaign by the tiny Persian Gulf nation to leverage its outsize pocketbook in support of Islamists across the region — and one that threatened to widen the rift between rival Palestinian factions.


WASHINGTON — The Obama administration secretly gave its blessing to arms shipments to Libyan rebels from Qatar last year, but American officials later grew alarmed as evidence grew that Qatar was turning some of the weapons over to Islamic militants, according to United States officials and foreign diplomats.


When Qatar’s royal family was looking for advice on charitable giving, it turned to a well-regarded professor named Abd al-Rahman al-Nu’aymi. The 59-year-old educator had a stellar résumé that included extensive fundraising experience and years of work with international human rights groups.

But one apparent accomplishment was omitted from the list: According to U.S. officials, Nu’aymi also was working secretly as a financier for al-Qaeda, funneling millions of dollars to the terrorist group’s affiliates in Syria and Iraq even as he led campaigns in Europe for greater freedoms for Muslims.

Nu’aymi was one of two men identified by Treasury Department officials last week as major financial backers of al-Qaeda and its regional chapters across the Middle East. Although U.S. officials routinely announce steps to disrupt terrorist financing networks, the individuals named in the latest case are far from ordinary. Both men have served as advisers to government-backed foundations in Qatar and have held high-profile positions with international human rights groups. The second man, a Yemeni, is heavily involved in his country’s U.S.-backed political transition.


“Abdul Rahman al-Nuaimi accused of sitting at centre of web of funding for al-Qaeda affiliates in countries ranging from Yemen to Syria, to Iraq to Somalia.”

“Mr Nuaimi, 60, has previously worked as a professor of history at Qatar University and even as president of the Qatar Football Association.”

“A leaked cable from the US Embassy in Doha in 2007 describes him as an “Islamist hardliner” and states that he was briefly jailed in 2000, for criticising the wife of Qatar’s then ruler for her role in public life.” US DIPLOMATIC CABLE | WIKILEAKS

He also was a founding board member of the Eid bin Mohammed Al Thani Charitable Association and a past board member of Qatar Islamic Bank.


While this military/para-military operation is moving forward, we need to use our diplomatic and more traditional intelligence assets to bring pressure on the governments of Qatar and Saudi Arabia, which are providing clandestine financial and logistic support to ISIL and other radical Sunni groups in the region.

“The Qataris and Saudis will be put in a position of balancing policy between their ongoing competition to dominate the Sunni world and the consequences of serious U.S. pressure. By the same token, the threat of similar, realistic U.S. operations will serve To assist moderate forces in Libya, Lebanon, and even Jordan, where insurgents are increasingly fascinated by the ISIL success in Iraq.”

Qatar’s Support of Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far | NEW YORK TIMES | SEP 7, 2014

Standing at the front of a conference hall in Doha, the visiting sheikh told his audience of wealthy Qataris that to help the battered residents of Syria, they should not bother with donations to humanitarian programs or the Western-backed Free Syrian Army.

“Give your money to the ones who will spend it on jihad, not aid,” implored the sheikh, Hajaj al-Ajmi, recently identified by the United States government as a fund-raiser for Al Qaeda’s Syrian affiliate.

Qatar is a tiny, petroleum-rich Persian Gulf monarchy where the United States has its largest military base in the Middle East. But for years it has tacitly consented to open fund-raising by Sheikh Ajmi and others like him. After his pitch, which he recorded in 2012 and which still circulates on the Internet, a sportscaster from the government-owned network, Al Jazeera, lauded him. “Sheikh Ajmi knows best” about helping Syrians, the sportscaster, Mohamed Sadoun El-Kawary, declared from the same stage.


Western officials have tracked the Qatari arms flights as they land in the city of Misrata, about 100 miles east of Tripoli, where the Islamist militias have their stronghold. Even after the fall of the capital and the removal of Libya’s government, Qatar is “still flying in weapons straight to Misrata airport”, said a senior Western official.


A government department donated £18,000 to a charity coalition with ties to the Muslim Brotherhood, a group whose activities Britain has vowed to curtail following concerns over their extremist links in the Middle East, it has been claimed.

The Case Against Qatar | FOREIGN POLICY VOICE | SEP 30, 2014

The tiny, gas-rich emirate has pumped tens of millions of dollars through obscure funding networks to hard-line Syrian rebels and extremist Salafists, building a foreign policy that punches above its weight. After years of acquiescing — even taking advantage of its ally’s meddling — Washington may finally be punching back.


Khalifa Muhammad Turki al-Subaiy – a Qatari citizen who was said to have provided ‘financial support’ for Khalid Sheikh Mohammed – was jailed for terrorist offences in 2008 but released after only six months.A terrorist financier from Qatar is at the centre of a jihadi network linking him to al-Qaeda fighters in Syria and Iraq.


An al-Qaeda money man was employed by the Qatari government despite being officially designated a terrorist by the US.

Salim Hasan Khalifa Rashid al-Kuwari channelled hundreds of thousands of dollars to al-Qaeda through a terrorist network while working in the Gulf state’s Ministry of Interior.


“We continue to interact closely with the Government of Qatar and will reinforce that such assistance should not go to Hamas.”

Qatar’s assistance to Hamas included a 2012 pledge of more than $400 million, supposedly for construction projects. Israel told the U.N. this year that Qatari money funded rockets as well as the cross-border tunnel network built by Hamas to carry out terror attacks inside Israel.

On Al Jazeera, Congressman Calls Out Network’s Qatari Owners for Funding Hamas War Crimes | THE TOWER | JUL 7, 2014

Rep. Brad Sherman, D-Calif., who sits on the House Foreign Affairs Committee, also slammed the network’s coverage of the latest round of fighting between Hamas and Israel during his recent appearance on the network.

“Every one of those rockets [fired by Hamas into Israeli cities] is a war crime, almost every one,” Sherman said, noting that Hamas seeks to hit civilian targets. “Of course it’s a war crime committed by Hamas. And of course the owners of this TV network help fund Hamas.”


The world’s most two-faced nation fights ISIS while letting terrorists raise money. Why won’t Washington stop them?

WASHINGTON, D.C.—It has been dubbed the most two-faced nation in the world, backing the U.S.-led coalition against the militants of the Islamic State while providing a permissive environment, in the words of one top American official, for terrorist financiers to operate with impunity. And despite a growing furor on both sides of the Atlantic, Qatar, the tiny but super-wealthy Gulf emirate, shows scant willingness to clamp down on the jihad moneymen. Indeed, it may never unless Western powers start raising the political stakes.

“Abdulrahman al-Nuaymi, a Qatari who has been accused by the U.S. Treasury Department of transferring millions of dollars to al Qaeda affiliates in Iraq, Syria, Somalia, and Yemen, was described by the former emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al Thani, as an “old friend” who helped to keep him in touch with “men of Islamic political thought,” according to the Arab press. Those thinkers included a former mentor of Osama bin Laden, Abulmajeed al-Zindani, and the founder of Palestine’s Hamas movement, Ahmed Yassin.”

Should Qatar be Judged by the Company they Keep? | CONSORTIUM AGAINST TERRORISM FINANCING | SEP 10, 2015

A 2015 report by the Consortium Against Terrorist Finance (CATF) called attention on Qatar Islamic Bank’s correspondents claiming that some of them “have controversial histories of affiliation with or support of terrorist or extremist activities.”

Qatar Islamic Bank’s (QIB) controversial correspondents include:

Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) | WIKIPEDIA despite evidence suggesting they have also engaged in terrorist financing.

The presence of IBBL among QIB’s financial partners is not surprising given that Al Rajhi Bank had a 37% direct ownership in IBBL.

Moneyjihad reported that in 2011 “the Bangladeshi home ministry intelligence revealed that 8 percent of the bank’s profits were diverted as corporate zakat to support jihad in Bangladesh.”

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $390,000

2015 | Islami Bank Bangladesh | $300,000
2016 | Islami Bank Bangladesh | $90,000



While the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) takes seriously the threat of terrorism within Saudi Arabia, it has been an ongoing challenge to persuade Saudi officials to treat terrorist financing emanating from Saudi Arabia as a strategic priority.

Saudi Arabia remains a critical financial support base for al-Qa’ida, the Taliban, LeT, and other terrorist groups, including Hamas. Riyadh has taken only limited action to disrupt fundraising for the UN 1267-listed Taliban and LeT-groups that are also aligned with al-Qa’ida and focused on undermining stability in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

While the GOK has demonstrated a willingness to take action when attacks target Kuwait, it has been less inclined to take action against Kuwait-based financiers and facilitators plotting attacks outside of Kuwait. Al-Qa’ida and other groups continue to exploit Kuwait both as a source of funds and as a key transit point.

United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based donors have provided financial support to a variety of terrorist groups, including al-Qa’ida, the Taliban, LeT and other terrorist groups, including Hamas.

Pakistan’s intermittent support to terrorist groups and militant organizations threatens to undermine regional security and endanger U.S. national security objectives in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Qatar has adopted a largely passive approach to cooperating with the U.S. against terrorist financing. Qatar’s overall level of CT cooperation with the U.S. is considered the worst in the region. Al-Qaida, the Taliban, UN-1267 listed LeT, and other terrorist groups exploit Qatar as a fundraising locale. Although Qatar’s security services have the capability to deal with direct threats and occasionally have put that capability to use, they have been hesitant to act against known terrorists out of concern for appearing to be aligned with the U.S. and provoking reprisals.

Why don’t news releases from the Defense Security Cooperation Agency make note of this?


“WASHINGTON, July 12, 2012 – The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress July 10 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Qatar for 24 AH-64D APACHE Block III LONGBOW Attack Helicopters and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $3.0 billion.”

“This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of a friendly country that has been, and continues to be, an important force for political and economic progress in the Middle East.”

“The helicopters will provide a long-term defensive and offensive capability to the Qatari peninsula as well as enhance the protection of key oil and gas infrastructure and platforms …”

The prime contractors will be The Boeing Company, Lockheed Martin Corporation, General Electric, Longbow Limited Liability Corporation, and Raytheon Corporation.

“There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale.”


“WASHINGTON, November 5, 2012 – The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress November 2 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Qatar for two Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Fire Units and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $6.5 billion.”

“This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of a friendly country that has been and continues to be an important force for political stability and economic progress in the Middle East.”

“There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale at this time.”


“WASHINGTON, November 7, 2012 – The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress Nov. 6 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Qatar for the sale of 11 PATRIOT Configuration-3 Modernized Fire Units and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $9.9 billion.”

“This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by improving the security of an important ally which has been, and continues to be, a force for political stability and economic progress in the Middle East. This sale is consistent with U.S. initiatives to provide key allies in the region with modern systems that will enhance interoperability with U.S. forces and increase security.”

The prime contractors will be Raytheon Corporation and Lockheed-Martin.

“There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale.”

Definition of offset agreement | FINANCIAL TIMES | LEXICON

“An offset agreement is a type of side deal, sometimes best described as a sweetener. This is an agreement between two or more parties that provides additional benefits and is ancillary to another negotiated contract.”

“The deal is between a government and company, often a defence company but it can also be used in big civil deals for items such as infrastructure and transport.

“Companies do this because it boosts their chance to win lucrative government contracts, particularly in developing countries.”

“A company’s offset obligation is usually worth 50-100 per cent of the value of the contract and can be direct or indirect. Direct offsets are linked to the original defence contact. Companies often agree to transfer relevant technological knowhow or use local suppliers to build the equipment they are selling to the government.”


The Pentagon approved the sale to Qatar of $9.9 billion worth of Patriot fire units, radars, and various Raytheon and Lockheed missiles in November 2012.

In March of 2014, Qatar confirmed the purchase of $9.9 billion Patriot missile defense system built by Raytheon equipped with PAC-3 missiles made by Lockheed; advanced daytime, high-definition sensors and radars for Apache helicopters; and Javelin missiles built by a Lockheed-Raytheon joint venture.

Qatar buys helicopters, missiles in $23 billion arms deals | REUTERS | MAR 27, 2014

Qatar announced contracts worth about $23 billion on Thursday to buy attack helicopters, guided missiles, tankers and other weapons from Boeing Co, Airbus, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon.

Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Longbow, General Electric Deal | DEFENSE SECURITY COOPERATION AGENCY

The Defense Security Cooperation Agency, the U.S. body which oversees foreign arms sales, had notified lawmakers in July 2012 of a possible sale of Apache helicopters to Qatar. Estimated contract value $3 billion.

In March of 2014, Qatar announced that Boeing was awarded the contract for 24 Apache Attack Helicopters. They will be fitted with Longbow radar equipment made by a joint venture of Lockheed and Northrop Grumman Corp. General Electric is also among the prime contractors.

These sales were approved. There are dozens more, similar to these, for other countries recognized as host to terrorists.

How did Qatar get so rich?

Liquefied Natural Gas Makes Qatar an Energy Giant | NEW YORK TIMES | AUG 5, 2015

Expanding Trade Routes

In less than 20 years, Qatar has become the world’s leading supplier of liquefied natural gas, accounting for about a third of the global L.N.G. trade. Five Asian countries purchased more than 70 percent of global L.N.G. imports in 2014.


Looking to the example of Malaysia and Indonesia, Qatar and Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, who was then its emir, started promoting L.N.G. in the mid-1990s. Exxon Mobil was the important early investor; Shell, Total and ConocoPhillips soon followed.

Qatar and its energy partners took the business to a new level, developing far bigger and more efficient plants. Last year, Qatar produced about a third of all liquefied natural gas, although Australia and the United States have big export ambitions.

It is a lucrative business that has made Qatar the world’s wealthiest country by output per capita. While industry growth has recently been flat, worldwide volumes have roughly quadrupled in the last two decades to about 240 million metric tons a year, or 264 million short tons, accounting for about one-third of overall gas exports. Annual sales are estimated at $180 billion.

“With the full development of Qatar, L.N.G. came of age,” said Michael Stoppard, chief gas strategist at IHS, a market research firm. “Qatar made L.N.G. a bigger business — bigger projects, bigger ships, bigger volumes and a much bigger global footprint.“

The Qataris originally planned to deliver much of their L.N.G. to the United States and Europe, but those plans were frustrated by the shale gas boom in North America. Instead, three-quarters of Qatari gas flowed last year to Asian countries like China, India and South Korea. Japan was Qatar’s largest customer as its electric utilities substituted natural gas generation for nuclear after the 2011 Fukushima disaster.

Podesta knocks greens on gas | POLITICO | MAR 19, 2014

White House adviser John Podesta took aim Wednesday at environmentalists who have criticized the Obama administration’s support for natural gas.

What else is Qatar doing with all that money? Investing in art and foreign corporations.

Islamic art museum marks cultural shift in Gulf | THE GUARDIAN | NOV 24, 2008

The Gulf states are famous for their shopping malls and skyscrapers, but now they are intent on promoting their cultural heritage with an ambitious plan to open a string of museums after Qatar unveiled a spectacular showcase for Islamic art at the weekend.

The collection housed in the Museum of Islamic Art may not be the biggest in the world but it is a contender for being the most impressive.

Built on an artificial island on reclaimed land, the museum, designed by one of the world’s leading architects, IM Pei, holds 800 artistic and historical treasures from three continents and illustrates Islamic culture spanning 1,100 years.

The inauguration was attended by heads of state and celebrities, including the Hollywood actor Robert De Niro, who will bring his long-established Tribeca film festival to Qatar next year, it was announced yesterday.

Qatar sets scene for film industry | FINANCIAL TIMES| FEB 11, 2009

Tribeca Film Festival Doha is the brainchild of Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, daughter of Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Qatar’s emir.

Sheikha Mayassa knows the Tribeca festival well. While a student at Duke University, North Carolina, a few years ago, she became an intern at TFF because she was interested in adapting a novel to film and wanted production experience.

Ms Rosenthal, producer of films such as Wag the Dog, Analyse That and Meet the Parents, did not foresee that TFF would become a cultural ambassador on a global scale. The festival initially began as a one-off event to help heal New York and revive a devastated neighbourhood.

Ms Rosenthal had worked in the New York neighbourhood for nearly 20 years and in 1988 co-founded the Tribeca Film Center with Mr De Niro, a long-time collaborator and friend. When the first hijacked aircraft struck the World Trade Centre, she was just a couple of blocks away. “The horror was right in front of me,” she recalls.

Mr De Niro, Ms Rosenthal and her husband Craig Hatkoff, hatched the idea for TFF and launched it just four months after 9/11.

The three were intent on bringing people back to lower Manhattan to “get back to normal”, Ms Rosenthal says.

Most Powerful Women in New York 2007: Jane Rosenthal | CRAIN’S | 2007

Tribeca Productions/Tribeca Enterprises

Jane Rosenthal is the business brains behind the wheel of New York’s most famous taxi driver: Robert De Niro. The duo, who founded Tribeca Productions in 1989, has produced 22 movies.

Perhaps Ms. Rosenthal’s most important contribution to the city, however, came in the wake of the Sept. 11 attacks. She and Mr. De Niro, along with Ms. Rosenthal’s husband, real estate financier Craig Hatkoff, launched the Tribeca Film Festival to help revive downtown.

“As filmmakers, the only thing we knew how to do was to screen pictures,” says Ms. Rosenthal, 50.

The first festival, in 2002, attracted 150,000 visitors. The event has grown into an annual celebration of worldwide film and culture that most recently brought in 500,000 people for screenings, concerts, family events and panel discussions.

“We are everybody’s festival,” says Ms. Rosenthal. “You don’t just have to be in the movie industry to come to TriBeCa.”

In addition to her dealings downtown, Ms. Rosenthal is active in Democratic Party politics as a fundraiser–she’s backing Sen. Hillary Clinton for the 2008 presidential race. Top mayoral aide Patricia Harris, who has worked with Ms. Rosenthal since the first festival, says, “Anytime the city needs her help, she is always ready to lend a hand.”

—Adrianne Pasquarelli

Tribeca Film Festival and Qatar Museums Authority To Launch ‘Tribeca Film Festival Doha’ in November 2009 | NEWSWIRE | NOV 24, 2009

DOHA, Qatar, Nov. 24 /CNW/ — Qatar Museums Authority (QMA), the organization edicated to developing the cultural resources of this Arabian Gulf state as a platform for international dialogue and understanding, has announced a groundbreaking agreement with New York’s world-renowned Tribeca Film Festival (TFF), to launch a world-class international film festival, Tribeca Film Festival Doha. The first festival will take place November 10 – 14, 2009 and be presented at Doha’s celebrated new Museum of Islamic Art and in cinemas across Doha.

The announcement of the cultural partnership was made at a special ceremony at the new Museum of Islamic Art, which was attended by Her Excellency Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Chairperson of the Qatar Museums Authority Board of Trustees, and Abdullah Al Najjar, Chief Executive Officer of the Qatar Museums Authority. Joining on behalf of the Tribeca Film Festival were the co-founders, Robert De Niro, Jane Rosenthal and Craig Hatkoff.


Building Museums, and a Fresh Arab Identity | NEW YORK TIMES | NOV 26, 2010

ABU DHABI, United Arab Emirates — It is an audacious experiment: two small, oil-rich countries in the Middle East are using architecture and art to reshape their national identities virtually overnight, and in the process to redeem the tarnished image of Arabs abroad while showing the way toward a modern society within the boundaries of Islam.

To a critic traveling through the region, the speed at which museums are being built in Abu Dhabi — and the international brand names attached to some of them — conjured culture-flavored versions of the overwrought real-estate spectacles that famously shaped its fellow emirate, Dubai. By contrast, Doha’s vision seemed a more calculated attempt to find a balance between modernization and Islam.

But in both cases leaders also see their construction sprees as part of sweeping efforts to retool their societies for a post-Sept. 11, post-oil world. Their goal is not only to build a more positive image of the Middle East at a time when anti-Islamic sentiment continues to build across Europe and the United States, but also to create a kind of latter-day Silk Road, one on which their countries are powerful cultural and economic hinges between the West and rising powers like India and China.

Qatar Purchases Cézanne’s The Card Players for More Than $250 Million, Highest Price Ever for a Work of Art | VANITY FAIR | FEB 2, 2012

With this landmark score, the tiny, oil-rich nation joins a massively exclusive club: only five Card Players exist, and the other four are in world-class collections such as the Musée d’Orsay and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The purchase is just the latest bid in Qatar’s effort to become an international intellectual hub.

The tiny, oil-rich nation of Qatar has purchased a Paul Cézanne painting, The Card Players, for more than $250 million. The deal, in a single stroke, sets the highest price ever paid for a work of art and upends the modern art market.

If the price seems insane, it may well be, since it more than doubles the current auction record for a work of art. And this is no epic van Gogh landscape or Vermeer portrait, but an angular, moody representation of two Aix-en-Provence peasants in a card game. But, for its $250 million, Qatar gets more than a post-Impressionist masterpiece; it wins entry into an exclusive club. There are four other Cézanne Card Players in the series; and they are in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Musée d’Orsay, the Courtauld, and the Barnes Foundation. For a nation in the midst of building a museum empire, it’s instant cred.

Qatar (and its capital city, Doha) isn’t just a destination for those with private jets. It’s also a burgeoning intellectual and media hub. It hosts the headquarters of Al Jazeera, the Mideast campuses of Georgetown, Texas A&M, and Northwestern Universities—and of one the most ambitious sets of cultural goals since the robber barons and empire builders of America founded so many grand institutions a century ago.

Qatar does big things in a spectacular way. In 2008 when it opened the Museum of Islamic Art, a grand limestone behemoth by I. M. Pei, a flotilla of vintage ships sailed in V.I.P. guests representing the world’s great museums. Later, Robert De Niro floated up from the sea in a revolving open-air elevator to announce the Tribeca Film Festival was starting a Doha outpost.

In 2010, Qatar opened its Arab Museum of Modern Art, and the Qatar National Museum, currently closed for renovation by superstar architect Jean Nouvel, will reopen in 2014. That’s where the Cézanne could end up, flanked by some famous Rothkos, Warhols, and Hirsts that the Qataris have been snapping up in a buying spree.

How did Qatar get the Cézanne? For years, Greek shipping magnate George Embiricos had owned and treasured the painting, rarely lending it. He was “entertained” but unmoved, according to one art dealer, by occasional offers for it that climbed ever higher alongside the art market in past decades. A few years ago, the painting was listed by artnews magazine as one of the world’s top artworks still in private hands.

Shortly before his death in the winter of 2011, Embiricos began discussions about its sale, which was handled by his estate. Two art dealers—William Acquavella and another, rumored to be Larry Gagosian—offered upward of $220 million for the painting, people close to the matter said. But the royal family of Qatar, without quibbling on price, outbid them, at $250 million.

The region’s glamorous arts expansion takes place in the shadow of the Arab Spring, of course, but that hasn’t stopped the showmanship game. This is a play for fame, tourism, and immortality—and the buyers are well versed in Hollywood-style hype. The daughter of Qatar’s emir, 28-year-old Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, now heads the Qatar Museums Authority. But her first job was working as an intern in New York for the Tribeca Film Festival. (She once bragged, laughing, that her job was picking up breakfast pastries for Jane Rosenthal.) Next week, she’s hosting the opening of the Murakami exhibition.

Is the buying spree over? Not a chance. Qatar made another major acquisition last year, hiring Christie’s chairman Edward J. Dolman as executive director of the Museums Authority.

Jane of All Trades | NEW YORK MAGAZINE | MAY 6, 2002

“Jane is a high-powered executive, but she’s very much a girl,” says the blonde Isham; the two of them have a running joke about the blonde versus brunette view of life. A world-class networker, Rosenthal has a loyal cadre of girlfriends who include Wasserstein, Caroline Kennedy, Comedy Central Films vice-president Patty Newburger, and veteran TV reporter Perri Peltz

The intensely wired Rosenthal met her easygoing husband when he was representing De Niro on a real-estate project. “Jane is a doer, and our entire marriage has been about working on projects together,” says Hatkoff, citing the construction of their Bridgehampton home, and their decision to hold a political salon in their living room, where framed photos of the Clintons perch on a side table. Rosenthal and Hatkoff became involved with Democratic fund-raising in 1997 at the instigation of Hatkoff’s older sister, Susan Patricof, and her husband, venture capitalist Alan Patricof, who befriended the Clintons back in 1991. “We asked Jane and Craig to do a fund-raiser,” says Susan, “because we were looking for a younger crowd, for people who hadn’t been exposed to the political scene.” Rosenthal, of course, pulled out all the stops: Her first foray featured De Niro, Leonardo DiCaprio at the height of his Titanic fame, and a cast of movers-and-shakers for a $25,000-per-person dinner at which Clinton played the saxophone.

A vast network for donors | WASHINGTON POST | MAR 18, 2015

Craig M. Hatkoff  $100,001 – $250,000

Craig Hatkoff (husband of Jane Rosenthal) | WIKIPEDIA | APR 17, 2017

Hatkoff is Chairman of Turtle Pond Publications which owns or invests in a number of new media, entertainment and publishing ventures.[6] Hatkoff is the co-founder of Capital Trust and served on the board of Directors.[7] He also serves on the Boards of the Taubman Centers Inc., Wildlife Direct, the NYU Child Study Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Sesame Workshop and The Borough of Manhattan Community College Foundation.[8][9][10][11]

The Child Mind Institute | Board of Directors | APR 17, 2017

Brooke Garber Neidich, Co-Founder and Chair
Debra G. Perelman, Co-Founder and Vice Chair
Arthur G. Altschul Jr.
Lisa Domenico Brooke
Phyllis Green & Randolph Cōwen
Mark Dowley
Elizabeth & Michael Fascitelli
Margaret Grieve
Jonathan Harris
Craig Hatkoff
Joseph Healey
Ellen & Howard Katz
Christine & Richard Mack
Anne Welsh McNulty
Julie Minskoff
Valerie Mnuchin
Daniel Neidich
Amy & John Phelan
Josh Resnick
Linnea Roberts
Jane Rosenthal
Jordan Schaps
Linda Schaps
Zibby Schwarzman
David Shapiro
Preethi Krishna & Ram Sundaram

Clinton & the Child Mind Institute (NYU Child Study Center) | JohnGraysonBlog

TL;DR: Hillary specifically requests a staffer to switch to a personal email. Said staffer receives spam, yet her entire email address isn’t disclosed (even though it’s not classified). Spam pertains to an advocacy thinktank, founded by a man who personally advocates for pushing drugs on children, yet his institution runs on the belief of the concept DBT (which is completely the opposite approach). Founded by a man who was fired from a public institution with a very cozy relationship to Bill Clinton. Thinktank claims to be impartial, independent, and non-funding – yet they previously hired Hillary PAC staffer. Second Wikileak email highlights cozier-than-normal relationship between founder of dubious institute and Hillary Clinton.

Qatari Riches Are Buying Art World Influence | NEW YORK TIMES | JUL 22, 2013

The prices have been record breaking, and startling.More than $70 million for Rothko’s “White Center” in 2007, a high-water mark for that artist.More than $20 million later that year for a Damien Hirst pill cabinet, then a record for a living artist.And $250 million for Cézanne’s “Card Players” in 2011, the highest known price ever paid for a painting.

Given the secrecy of the art market, few knew at the time who had laid out such unprecedented sums.But it has become increasingly clear that those masterpieces and many more have been purchased by Qatar, a tiny Persian Gulf country with enormous wealth and cultural ambitions to match: it is buying art at a level never seen before.

The purchasing is directed through intermediaries by Sheika al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, chairwoman of the Qatar Museums Authority and a sister to Qatar’s new emir. At age 30 she has become one of the most influential players in the art world.

No one knows exactly how much Sheika al Mayassa has spent on behalf of her family or the museum authority since she was named chairwoman by her father, the former emir, in 2006. But experts estimate the acquisition budget reaches $1 billion a year and say the Qataris have used it to secure a host of undisputed modern and contemporary masterpieces by Francis Bacon, Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons.

Where all this art will eventually end up remains something of a mystery. But it seems clear that, just as Qatar has used its oil riches to boost its influence in the Middle East with ventures like arming Syrian rebels, its wealth is also being deployed to help the country become a force in the world of culture.

Auction houses and galleries will often wine and dine these collectors before a big sale. Significant works will be flown to their homes. The Qataris don’t take part in this. They delegate their purchasing to a handful of experienced art advisers who do it for them — initially the dealers Philippe Ségalot and Franck Giraud and now Guy Bennett.

Mr. Bennett, a former co-head of Christie’s Impressionist and Modern art department worldwide, is known as a master dealmaker. He is just one of a number of Christie’s alumni who have taken on roles with Qatar. In June 2011 Edward Dolman, the auction house’s former chairman, was named executive director of the Qatar Museums Authority. Jean-Paul Engelen, the director of public art programs for the authority, is also a Christie’s veteran.

The Qatar team typically buys from dealers, though some of its most major purchases have been at auction. Experts said that another intermediary may act on Mr. Bennett’s behalf so that the sales cannot be traced to the Qataris, who want to keep their buying private to prevent driving up the market and fueling speculation about their plans.

“They are very secretive about their purchases and activities in the art market and I am not quite sure why,” Mr. Nash said.



What Are The Top 10 Al-Thani Family Art Acquisitions? | ARTNET | NOV 14, 2014

1. Paul Cézanne, The Card Players, $250 million
This masterpiece is supposedly the most expensive work ever sold.

2. Mark Rothko, White Center (Yellow, Pink and Lavender), $72.8 million
This “Rockefeller Rothko” was reportedly purchased by the Al-Thani family at a Sotheby’s auction in May 2007.

3. Andy Warhol, The Men in Her Life, $63. 4 million
Philippe Ségalot reportedly orchestrated the acquisition of Warhol’s 1962 work. It was sold at Phillip’s in New York in November 2010.

4. Fabergé egg, $9.57 million
The egg was bought at a Christie’s auction in New York in 2002.

5. James John Audubon, Birds of America, $8.8 million
The late Sheikh Saud Al-Thani purchased this masterpiece, which at the time was the world’s most expensive book.

6. The Clive of India Flask, $5 million
During Sheikh Saud’s shopping spree in London, he beat London’s V&A museum to purchase the £3m Clive of India flask.

7. Girault de Prangey, The Temple of Jupiter in Athens, $922,490
When Sheikh Saud purchased this photograph in 2003, he set a new record (beating one of his own previous purchases) for the most expensive price paid for a daguerreotype and for a photograph.

8. J. Ezra Merkin’s 11 Rothkos, $310 million
The family supposedly bought 11 Rothko paintings from financier J. Ezra Merkin when he had to liquidate the largest Rothko collection in the world due to his involvement with the Madoff scandal.

9. Werner Bokelberg‘s Photography collection, $15 million
Sheikh Saud in 2000 bought up Bokelberg’s 136 photograph collection which included masterpieces by Man Ray and Alfred Stieglitz.

10. Damien Hirst, Lullaby Spring, $19 million
Damien Hirst‘s pill cabinet was purchased in the spring of 2007 at Sotheby’s.


9/11 wicked but a work of art, says Damien Hirst | THE GUARDIAN | SEP 10, 2002

The artist Damien Hirst said last night he believed the terrorists responsible for the September 11 attacks “need congratulating” because they achieved “something which nobody would ever have thought possible” on an artistic level.

Hirst, who is no stranger to controversy, said many people would “shy away” from looking at the event as art but he believed the World Trade Centre attack was “kind of like an artwork in its own right”.

In an interview, Hirst told BBC News Online: “The thing about 9/11 is that it’s kind of an artwork in its own right. It was wicked, but it was devised in this way for this kind of impact. It was devised visually.”

Describing the image of the hijacked planes crashing into the twin towers as “visually stunning”, he added: “You’ve got to hand it to them on some level because they’ve achieved something which nobody would have ever have thought possible, especially to a country as big as America.

“So on one level they kind of need congratulating, which a lot of people shy away from, which is a very dangerous thing.”

Tony Podesta owns entire collections of Damien Hirst pieces | NGA | OCT 24, 2016

Paint the Town: Final Collector’s View at the Podesta’s | WASHINGTON LIFE MAGAZINE | JUN 18, 2010

“I’ve been collecting since the early 80s,” said Tony, when asked about his start. “I worked for Ted Kennedy when he ran for president in 1980. The campaign wasn’t as successful as we had hoped, and rather quickly they cut everybody’s salary in half. And at the end of the campaign, the way the campaign stayed afloat was to get artists – like Warhol, Rauschenberg, Lichtenstein – to make art for the campaign. They sold the art to keep the campaign afloat. And at the end of the campaign, they kept track of how much the other half of the salary was that we didn’t get and I walked out with a big tube of Warhols, Rauschenbergs and Lichtensteins! And that’s how I started collecting art. It was involuntary collecting!”

Inside Homes: Private Viewing | WASHINGTON LIFE MAGAZINE | JUN 5, 2015

Inside power lobbyist, philanthropist and contemporary art collector Tony Podesta’s Kalorama home.

Lobbyists Set to Fight Royalty Bill for Artists | NEW YORK TIMES | MAR 23, 2014

Lawyers for Sotheby’s auction house paid an unusual visit to a few lawmakers on Capitol Hill this month and brought along some high-powered lobbying muscle. They had come to complain about a new bill that even some supporters acknowledge faces a difficult road in this divided Congress: a proposal to give visual artists — or their estates — a cut of the profits when their work is resold at public auction.

Despite the long odds, Sotheby’s and Christie’s have spent about $1 million in the last couple of years to hire well-known legal and lobbying talent in Washington such as Paul D. Clement, the former solicitor general under President Obama, and the Podesta Group, run by the Democratic super-lobbyist Tony Podesta, whose brother, John D. Podesta, recently joined the Obama administration as a top aide.

“We’re taking it seriously, even though we don’t think it’s going to pass,” said Jane A. Levine, Sotheby’s director of worldwide compliance.

Brother of Hillary Clinton’s Top Campaign Aide Lobbied for Fracked Gas Export Terminal Co-Owned by Qatar | DESMOG BLOG | APR 30, 2015

Anthony “Tony” Podesta began lobbying in late 2013 on behalf of a company co-owned by ExxonMobil and Qatar Petroleum aiming to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) to the global market. Tony is the brother of John Podesta, former top climate change adviser to President Barack Obama and current top campaign aide for Hillary Clinton’s 2016 bid for president.

Qatar, the Persian Gulf country which shares a border with Saudi Arabia, is the top exporter of LNG in the world. It has also come under fire for human rights abuses and for maintaining one of the most long-standing dictatorships on the planet.

The Clinton Foundation, whose finances are currently under increased scrunity due to the looming release of the book “Clinton Cash,” took between $250,000-$500,000 from Qatar in 2014.

Paul Gauguin Painting Sells for Record $300 Million to Qatar Museums in Private Sale | ARTNET | FEB 5, 2015

A new record price for an artwork, nearly $300 million, may have been achieved with the sale of a Paul Gauguin canvas by a Swiss collector. The buyer is rumored to be the Qatar Museums.

The seller, Rudolf Staechelin, a retired Sotheby’s executive who now lives in Basel, confirmed the sale this afternoon to the New York Times, but declined to identify the buyer or disclose the price.

Sources tell the Times that Qatar Museums is the purchaser. Qatar is already home to the painting that set the previous record for most expensive artwork, Paul Cézanne’s The Card Players, purchased by its royal family in 2011 for a price said to have been $250 million. The late Qatari ruler Sheikh Saud Al-Thani was a prolific collector (see Qatar’s Sheikh Saud Died of Complications Related to Heart Condition and What Are The Top 10 Al-Thani Family Art Acquisitions?), and other Qatari buyers have made major art purchases in recent years. The country’s acquisitions allegedly include Cézanne’s La Montagne Sainte-Victoire vue du Bosquet du Château Noir, offloaded by Detroit’s Edsel & Eleanor Ford House to the tune of $100 million in 2013 (see Secret $100 Million Cézanne Sale in Detroit).

The sale was arranged after a dispute with the local government over whether Staechelin’s collection could travel while the institution was closed; the loan contract stipulated that the work must remain on public view. “We are painfully reminded that permanent loans are still loans. The people of Basel do not own these, and they can be taken away at any moment,” said the museum in a statement bemoaning the work’s loss. Staechelin acquired the painting, along with the rest of his collection, from his grandfather and namesake, a Swiss merchant who collected during World War I and the following years

Staechelin told the Times he initiated the Gauguin sale “mainly because we got a good offer. The market is very high and who knows what it will be in 10 years. I always tried to keep as much together as I could, [but] over 90 percent of our assets are paintings hanging for free in the museum. It’s not a healthy financial risk distribution. . . . For me they are family history and art. But they are also security and investments.”

Distinguished Artists to Join Curators, Art Collectors and Museum Directors at the New York Times ‘Art For Tomorrow’ Conference | NEW YORK TIMES | JAN 20, 2016

Artist Marina Abramović, Art Basel global director Marc Spiegler, UNESCO’s Francesco Bandarin among diverse mix of art-world leaders to appear in Doha March 12-15

Qatar: The Shape of Tomorrow | BLOUINART | JUN 19, 2016

Doha: Plastic and ready-made, it’s a city built for Jeff Koons.  When I run into him in March at the elevator bank at the
 W Doha Hotel, it feels staged. House music plays at a tasteful volume for nine o’clock in the morning. Koons’s smile is cartoonish and his gray skinny tie impeccably knotted. A frequent guest of the Qatari royal family, the artist is in the desert peninsula’s capital to headline the New York Times Art for Tomorrow conference.

“I love the readymade because of the idea of acceptance,” Koons tells me, “that everything is in play and that everything is perfect in its own being.” It’s little wonder that he is attracted to Qatar.

“I’ve heard stories of an artist being in prison,” Koons told me, as we sat on white couches in the W. “My idea of participating and of art having a moral responsibility, I think, comes from my experience of growing up,” he said, “in that first you have a concept of self and of transcendence of the self, and then you become aware of your place within the community and your responsibility to the community, and that just gets played out on larger scales later in life, depending upon your desire for participation.”


Qatar’s oil boom created the world’s most extravagant art scene—and also led to its demise | QUARTZ | AUG 24, 2016

Damien Hirst, Jeff Koons, and Naomi Campbell made their way through the VIP crowd, past the fleet of Bentleys, and toward the waiting helicopter.

Hirst—the English artist best known for his multi-million dollar sculpture of a shark floating in formaldehyde—was in town on official business. Qatar Museums (QM) had ponied up over $20 million to fund a retrospective of his work and commission a series of pieces. He had spent the last hour showing QM’s chairperson, Sheikha Mayassa (who is also the daughter of the Emir), around the exhibition, pointing out exactly how her country’s money had been spent. The other two were just tagging along, presumably. Besides, the after-party sounded promising: QM had organized a pop-up Prada shop in the middle of the desert, and guests were being ferried there via private helicopter.

As the rotor blades sprang to life and the unlikely trio was lifted into the sky, the South-Asian laborers working nearby stopped to watch the spectacle. They were being paid $11 a day to swing pickaxes in the desert sun and lay the groundwork for the new Qatar National Museum.

These purchases—perhaps destined to gather dust in a museum basement—nonetheless endeared Qatar to the international art market and provided the media with a compelling, feel-good narrative about the young princess who was helping transform the region via art and museums. That may have been true, but the reality of day-to-day life for the staff at QM was a series of temper tantrums, meltdowns, threats, and people running to the bathroom in tears. But I guess that’s to be expected when you throw a couple hundred expats into a 14-story tower in the desert, pair them up with local bureaucrats, and tell them to launch a series of ludicrous exhibitions and international conferences in a country where a single shipping form or budget request can take months to process.

Like all other aspects of Qatar society, life within the tower followed a very clear hierarchy based on a person’s passport, skin color, and surname. While Qatar isn’t as religiously conservative as neighboring Saudi Arabia, it’s also not that far removed. All Qataris are expected to wear their “national uniform” while in public (a black abaya for women, a white thobe for men). Workplaces pause for daily prayers, and fraternizing between members of the opposite sex is generally discouraged.

South Asia ‘shares blame’ for Gulf migrant abuses | ASIAN REVIEW | JUN 30, 2016

Amid growing concern about Qatar’s treatment of South Asian migrants building the infrastructure for the 2022 soccer World Cup, activists are warning that labor abuses are widespread throughout the Gulf, and that workers’ home countries share the blame.

Concerns have been raised over working conditions with Emir Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani, Qatar’s authoritarian ruler.

Amnesty International, a human rights group, said that almost all of more than 200 laborers it interviewed on two World Cup-related construction sites in Doha were being exploited by their employers.

However, Qatar is neither the top Gulf destination for South Asian migrant workers nor the worst alleged violator of their rights. Indian embassies received more than 7,000 labor complaints from Gulf countries in the 11 months to November 2015, mostly from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj told parliament in New Delhi in December.

Revealed: Qatar’s World Cup ‘slaves’ | THE GUARDIAN

Dozens of Nepalese migrant labourers have died in Qatar in recent weeks and thousands more are enduring appalling labour abuses, a Guardian investigation has found, raising serious questions about Qatar’s preparations to host the 2022 World Cup.

This summer, Nepalese workers died at a rate of almost one a day in Qatar, many of them young men who had sudden heart attacks.

The investigation found evidence to suggest that thousands of Nepalese, who make up the single largest group of labourers in Qatar, face exploitation and abuses that amount to modern-day slavery, as defined by the International Labour Organisation, during a building binge paving the way for 2022.

It turns out, Jeff Koons has been a donor to Democratic causes and candidates for a long time.

Jeff Koons donated contributed to Correct the Record | FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION

Jeff Koons donated $50,000 USD to correct the record, a political hit squad founded by David Brock, a close associate of John Podesta and James Alefantis.

Jeff Koons Endorses Hillary Clinton for President, Says Trump Not ‘Suitable’ | ARTNET | OCT 20, 2016

Jeff Koons joins a growing list of artists and art world personalities who are endorsing Hillary Clinton in the upcoming American presidential election.

Speaking to the German art magazine Monopol, the artist argued that the Democratic candidate will do more to support the visual arts in America than Republican nominee Donald Trump. He revealed that he has supported Clinton since meeting her at the White House 20 years ago. The two have had a number of interactions since then; for instance, in 2012, Clinton presented him with the Medal of Arts.

“Hillary Clinton has always supported the arts,” Koons said, adding that she “closely follows the developments in the art world.”

Artists raise millions for Hillary Clinton | THE ART NEWSPAPER | NOV 3, 2016

“Jeff Koons has donated more than $50,000 in cash and through his work to support the US presidential candidate”

“Jeff Koons’s donation of $50,000 to Correct the Record, a “Super Pac” (Public Action Committee) backing Hillary Clinton, is the biggest cash donation by an artist to this year’s US presidential campaign. According to reports from the Federal Election Committee, Koons made the donation on 17 June this year.”

“But the artist has potentially donated significantly more in kind: he created a print in an edition of 40, Gazing Ball (da Vinci Mona Lisa), which was given to those who bought a $50,000 ticket to an auction hosted by Larry Gagosian in September.”

“If all 40 of those prints sold, it would raise $2m for the Hillary Victory Fund, however a spokesman for the campaign said it could not release such donor information.”

“Koons was not available for comment, but recently told Monopol magazine that he had supported Clinton for 20 years. She awarded him with the Medal of Arts in 2013, when she was Secretary of State.”

“Other prominent artists to have supported the Clinton campaign according to the FEC reports, through cash donations or auctioned works—many given as part of September’s Gagosian auction—include Marina Abramovic ($2,700 cash donation made in May), Glenn Ligon ($30,000 “joint fundraising contribution” in September), Ed Ruscha ($12,500 contribution in September), Richard Serra ($28,000 contribution in September), Cindy Sherman ($33,400 and $75,000 contributions in August and September) and Sarah Sze ($21,000 contribution in September).”

“Art dealers including Gagosian and David Zwirner have also donated to the Clinton campaign.”

He’s With Her: Larry Gagosian to Host Fundraising Auction for Hillary Clinton at 21st Street Gallery | ARTNEWS | AUG 29, 2016

ARTnews has learned that on September 12, Larry Gagosian will host “Art for Hillary Auction 2016” at the Gagosian Gallery space on West 21st Street in Chelsea, presiding over a benefit sale that will raise money for Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign.

Jeff Koons | International Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Director | RELATIONSHIP SCIENCE | ICMEC BOARD OF DIRECTORS

The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children held its first Board of Directors meeting in May 1998. It was officially launched in April 1999 by Hillary Clinton, then-First Lady of the United States, and Cherie Blair, wife of British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ICMEC HISTORY / FOUNDING

Dakis Joannou, (& Jeff Koons) Board of Directors | International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | AUG 16, 2007

Joannou & Paraskevaides is a Cypriot international building, civil and electromechanical engineering contractor with an involvement in the energy (oil and gas) and industrial sectors operating in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and Asia.

J&P has built several airports in the Middle East, including Oman, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan & UAE.

More about Dakis Joannou

They also build roads, tunnels, bridges, islands etc.

The company was founded by his father Stelios Ioannou along with his partner George Paraskevaides.

Mr. Paraskevaides founded the Cyprus Kidney Association, the Surgical and Transplant Foundation and the Cyprus Heart Association.


Dakis Joannou and Jeff Koons have been very close friends for at least 2 decades.

A Fool for Art | THE NEW YORKER | NOV 12, 2007

Jeffrey Deitch and the exuberance of the art market.

A wave of new American and European collectors, many of them youngish hedge-fund managers, has driven auction prices to unprecedented, almost unimaginable levels—$104 million for Picasso’s “Boy with a Pipe,” at Sotheby’s in 2004—and even higher prices have been registered in private sales. (The billionaire hedge-fund owner Steven A. Cohen is said to have paid $143.5 million last year for a painting by Willem de Kooning.) More recently, money pouring in from non-American sources—Russian oligarchs, mysterious collectors in Dubai, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, and South Korea—has pushed prices even higher, and confirmed the ever-expanding art market as a global enterprise.

A huge portion of the new money in this market is being spent on contemporary art…

Clinton Event Produces Support for Road Safety, Clean Water, and Other Global Issues | PHILANTHROPY | SEP 23, 2010

A $3.75-million grant from the Coca-Cola Company to start eight water projects in Morocco, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and other African countries that have large Muslim populations. The grant is part of a $7.5-milion project that is also being supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.N. Development Program.

”Guilty” by Ivana Porfiri for Dakis Joannou | YATZER | OCT 03, 2008

Dakis Joannou is a Greek Cypriot industrialist and one of the leading collectors of European contemporary art. The earliest work in his collection is from 1985 and the latest one is his own yacht which name is Guilty, a project of Ivana Porfiri and exterior camouflage design by Jeff Koons. 

Dakis Joannou’s Guilty Pleasure | NOWNESS | MAR 7, 2010

The Yacht That Koons Designed

As far as nautical luxury goes, it would be hard to outdo Greek billionaire Dakis Joannou’s “Guilty.” The yacht was built in 2008 by specialist Cantieri Navali Rizzardi, the Italian company that showed the first superyacht longer than 100 feet at the Cannes International Boat and Yacht Show of 2002 (owner Gianfranco Rizzardi refers to his vessels as the “haute couture” of pleasure boats). With an exterior by Jeff Koons, the 115-foot floating hulk is something of a museum-worthy masterpiece. Koons’s design was inspired by the “dazzle”camouflage of WW1 ships—complex geometric patterns that created opticalillusions to confuse enemy gunners. The interior, designed by Milan’s IvanaPorfiri, is no less wowing, with works by artists such as Martin Creed andSarah Morris, whose text painting Guilty inspired the yacht’s name. In between overseeing his Athens-based, non-profit DESTEFoundation, which has supportednumerous projects since 1983, and liaising with major art world figures (Larry Gagosian, Marian Goodman and Maurizio Cattelan all attended the christening of “Guilty”), Dakis Joannou sails his prized boat to his villa in Corfu, where he spent ten days with Koons last summer. When Joannou is in Greece, “Guilty” can often be seen mooredon the island of Hydra—the site of the new DESTE projectspace.

Too Big to Sail? | VANITY FAIR | OCT 13, 2010

The financial crisis sent panic through the world of super-yachts, with over-leveraged tycoons abandoning ship, and sales in a deep freeze. Two years later, the author delves into the motives, means, and lifestyles of the oligarchs, operators, and sea-lovers who are still riding the waves. Choose your vessel: from the naked aggression of Roman Abramovich’s record-size Eclipse, the floating advertisement of the Candy brothers’ Candyscape II, and the eye-popping Jeff Koons exterior of Dakis Joannou’s Guilty to the pure romance of Tara Getty’s historic Blue Bird.

Last Mile Project for Medicines | CLINTON GLOBAL INITIATIVE | 2013

In 2013, the Coca-Cola Company committed to working over two years with partners, including the Last Mile Project, to create consistent availability of medical resources in hard-to-reach areas of Tanzania and Mozambique. The focus of the partnership is to systematically extract learning from Coca-Cola’s successes and approaches in supply chain and marketing in these areas; thereby building significant capability within entities that distribute critical medicines on behalf of Ministries of Health across Africa. As a result, these entities will be able to significantly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their organizations as they significantly improve availability of critical medicines throughout the markets they serve.

The Collection As a Dialogue | ART TERRITORY | MAY 05, 2014

Joannou is a little over 70 years old, and his name can be found in ArtReview’s Power 100, a list of the world’s most influential figures in the art world. Last year he was ranked #37, and he’s been on the list every year since it was formed. Born in Cyprus, Joannou studied engineering in the United States and later studied architecture in Rome, after which he joined his family’s construction business. The company, J&P Group, was established by Joannou’s father in 1941 and has since grown into a global empire. Joannou is the chairman of the board at J&P Group but also owns shares in more than 20 other companies ranging from the shipping sector to tourism to real estate.  He is a shareholder in one of the largest distributors of Coca-Cola products in 27 countries, including Greece, Russia and Nigeria. He owns the YES! network of boutique hotels, which includes Semiramis (designed by Karim Rashid) and New Hotel (designed by the Brazilian design company Campana Brothers) in Athens.

Ambassador Maura Harty | President & CEO, ICMEC

Ambassador Maura Harty is our President and Chief Executive Officer. She came to ICMEC after a career in the United States Foreign Service, devoted in large part to serving the interests of American citizens abroad. As Assistant Secretary for Consular Affairs at the U.S. Department of State, Ambassador Harty directed fundamental changes in visa policies and procedures in the wake of the September 11th attacks, prioritizing national security needs while facilitating legitimate travel to the United States..An expert in crisis management, Ambassador Harty created the Department of State’s Office of Children’s Issues (OCI) to address two daunting diplomatic challenges: the abduction of children by parents across international borders, and intercountry adoptions.Ambassador Harty served in a variety of senior positions at the State Department including Special Assistant to Secretary of State George P. Shultz, Executive Assistant to Secretary Warren Christopher, U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Paraguay, and Executive Secretary of the Department of State under Secretary Colin Powell.

Ambassador Maura Harty | President & CEO, ICMEC

Biogrpahy: Ambassador Maura Harty is our President and Chief Executive Officer. She came to ICMEC after a career in the United States Foreign Service, devoted in large part to serving the interests of American citizens abroad. As Assistant Secretary for Consular Affairs at the U.S. Department of State, Ambassador Harty directed fundamental changes in visa policies and procedures in the wake of the September 11th attacks, prioritizing national security needs while facilitating legitimate travel to the United States..An expert in crisis management, Ambassador Harty created the Department of State’s Office of Children’s Issues (OCI) to address two daunting diplomatic challenges: the abduction of children by parents across international borders, and intercountry adoptions.Ambassador Harty served in a variety of senior positions at the State Department including Special Assistant to Secretary of State George P. Shultz, Executive Assistant to Secretary Warren Christopher, U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Paraguay, and Executive Secretary of the Department of State under Secretary Colin Powell.

Ambassador Harty demanded that Romania accept foreign adoption agreement, or be denied inclusion for U.S. Visa Waiver Program



1.(C) In meetings May 10 and 11 with President Basescu, Foreign Minister Ungureanu and other officials of the Government of Romania (GOR), Assistant Secretary Maura Harty found no evidence that the GOR had specific plans or strong commitment to resolve pending cases of international adoption affected by the law in place since January 1 banning adoptions out of Romania. She informed her interlocutors she would have to share that impression with American families whose petitions to adopt Romanian children were affected by the ban. She reiterated to FM Ungureanu the message given by the Secretary during his meeting with her in Washington, that establishing a road map towards eventual inclusion of Romania in the U.S. Visa Waiver Program (VWP) would depend on progress towards resolving the pending cases.

2.(C) (Summary, cont,d.) After his meeting with A/S Harty, President Basescu appeared to have changed his mind and decided to take positive action on the issue. On May 12, he informed Charge d,Affaires that he had discussed the adoption issue with EU Commissioner for Enlargement Olli Rehn on May 11; would instruct FM Ungureanu to write the EC expressing the desirability of putting in motion a process to resolve the cases; and that Romania would take the initiative to convince the Germans, Italians, French and others to wield their influence and urge the EC to view resolution of the cases favorably. End summary.

3.(C) Action Request: Per internal discussions during A/S Harty,s visit, post requests Department consideration of a letter from the Secretary to the European Commission urging the EC support humanitarian resolution of pending international adoption cases from Romania. End request.

24.(C) Post believes Basescu’s May 12 statements indicate he took to heart A/S Harty’s message and realized anew how seriously the USG takes resolution of the pending cases. His was the most forward-leaning commitment to action by the GOR leadership to date. Post will follow up with his advisors, the Prime Minister’s office and the MFA in the coming days, and continue to discreetly explore with European embassy interlocutors possibilities for their engaging the EC and European Parliament to resolve pending adoptions. End comment.

ForMin Diaconescu, Secretary of State Clinton discuss including Romania in Visa Waiver program | EMBASSY OF ROMANIA | SEP 13, 2011

Why they so obsessed with foreign adoptions? Why Romania?


Mihaela Geoană

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Secretary
Fundatia Renasterea (Romania) | President
Mihaela Geoana is married to: Mircea Geoana

Mircea Geoana

Government of Romania | Ambassador to the United States (youngest ever)
The Aspen Institute of Romania | President
The Aspen Institute, Inc. | Member, Board of Trustees (Current)
World Bank Group Executive Development Program at the Harvard Business School | 1999 Graduate

Mircea Geoana ran for the Presidency of Romania in 2009. In an unprecedented narrow and contested election, he received 49.6% of the casted ballot.

Clinton To Romania: NATO’s Door Is Open | CNN | JUL 11, 1997 

“The door to NATO is open,” Clinton said. “And we will help you walk through it.”

Mihaela Geoana, fighter against cancer | CRUCEA ROSIE ROMANA | MAR 17, 2008

A foundation
The idea to establish a charitable foundation came to America. “There I was involved in many charitable by nature diplomatic activity. We requested various organizations to host events for them. It was something that did not cost us anything, but instead came a lot of people at the Romanian embassy. It was an opportunity to promote Romania “, says it. After a short period, Mihaela Geoana was invited to support an organization in the field of breast cancer. After returning to Romania, in 2001, she managed after half a year to put the Foundation “Rebirth Education, Health and Culture”. Beside it, a founding member was Cristina Copos, wife of businessman George Copos and “ingredients” Andreea Esca, “spokesman message and presenter events”, and Dana Nastase.

Ideas overseas
Mihaela Geoana admits reputation enjoyed by her husband helped develop the foundation. “The fact that my husband was Ambassador of Romania to Washington helped me to observe activities in which politicians were involved wives overseas. I understand how this system works and I thought it would be wonderful to bring it in Romania. Another benefit of notoriety is that my husband brought me to the attention of the media and so we could advocate for the foundation, “said Geoana. However, she says that at first they hosted events in the United States “and saw some ladies of high position in society, I wonder what they want to achieve. I say it is the satisfaction of doing good. I honestly do not understand. That’s why I am afraid that is not understood when I say that I have a satisfaction to help someone “put an end to the discussion Mihaela Geoana.


Interview: Mircea Geoană – NATO membership, the first collateral security in Romanian history | MEDIA FAX | MAR 29, 2014 

Geoana said that NATO was the moment of returning Romania to the West and asks rhetorically, how vulnerable it was Romania today to the actions of the Russian Federation, trying to return to his former press imperial without security guarantees offered Alliance and US partners.

(Replace “Russian” with Soros to get the accurate meaning.)

In Romania, Faith in Globalization Survives | NEW YORK TIMES | MAR 2, 2017 

BUCHAREST, Romania — A month ago, images of hundreds of thousands of Romanians protesting in front of the government building in Bucharest and in other Romanian cities started to spread around the world. It may have seemed just another popular turn toward right-wing demagogy in a time of receding faith in democracy. But that is not the case.

Diplomatic cables revealed the discussion of agreements between Romanian organized crime and radical Muslim groups.


(C) Summary. During the recent Russian Embassy-hosted G8 Counter-terrorism Action Group (CTAG) meeting (Ref A), participants agreed upon the importance of dialogue and exchange with moderate Muslims but acknowledged that their Embassies had not engaged in such efforts. Several participants discussed the nexus between organized crime networks and terrorism, with one diplomat decrying Romania’s well-organized and politically connected “silent Mafia”. End Summary.

(C/NF) Specifically addressing risks posed by organized crime, the EU Counselor proposed that the “Mafia” plays a pernicious and frequently sub rosa role in Romania. Noting the absence of press or police reports about gangland killings, he suggested that Romanian organized crime “may be so well organized they don’t need to shoot each other.” He conceded that the EU had no specific information to share on this point, opining that organized crime groups Romania “stay below the radar” and frequently collude with government officials. He observed that some sources had alleged that a “deal” existed between “certain Arab groups” and the Romanian government: “let us launder money (in Romania) and we won’t attack” Romanian targets. Later in the dialogue, he stated that PKK “operations are financed by illegal operations in Romania.”

Intelligence agencies have established relationships with foreign militant organizations. Our involvement in the arms trade is fact. Given, that arms, drugs, and people are often trafficked by the same criminal syndicates, is it possible that our government is involved the human trade too?

Bush admits to secret prisons | THE GLOBE AND MAIL | SEP 7, 2006 | UPDATED MAR 17, 2009

After his administration spent months steadfastly refusing to confirm the existence of the widely criticized “black sites,”

Bush not only acknowledged that terrorists had been “held and questioned outside the United States” by the Central Intelligence Agency but he praised the program as one that had broken up several plots and kept “potential mass murderers off the streets before they were able to kill us.”

The presumed terrorists, including suspects in the attack on the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000 and the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, have already been transferred to the U.S. military prison at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba where 455 other suspects are also being held.

Another Secret CIA Prison Found | ABC | DEC 8, 2011

Another CIA secret prison was located and identified today in Eastern Europe, and unlike others previously discovered, this one is in a heavily populated section of a capital city.

According to an AP investigation, the CIA housed six so-called high-value terrorism detainees in a Romanian government building in central Bucharest, in the midst of a leafy neighborhood and next to a railway line.

A secret CIA prison found by ABC News in Lithuania was in a forest on the premises of a former horseback riding academy outside the capital city of Vilnius.

Teresa Carlson

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Amazon Web Services Worldwide | Vice-President of Public Sector

Agencies to look for a ‘cloud option’
Federal Cloud Computing Strategy
US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume 1 Release 1.0 (Draft)
The Rise of Amazon Web Services
Amazon Web Services
Smart is beautiful

The Details About the CIA’s Deal With Amazon | THE ATLANTIC | JUL 17, 2014

A $600 million computing cloud built by an outside company is a “radical departure” for the risk-averse intelligence community.

This summer, a $600 million computing cloud developed by Amazon Web Services for the Central Intelligence Agency over the past year will begin servicing all 17 agencies that make up the intelligence community.

Intelligence community loves its new Amazon cloud | FORTUNE | JUN 29, 2015

The new Amazon Web Services-built CIA cloud is more secure and capable than legacy systems, according to intelligence IT officials speaking at an AWS event.

The new Amazon Web Services-built CIA cloud is more secure and capable than legacy systems, according to intelligence IT officials speaking at an AWS event.

U.S. intelligence agencies moving from legacy systems to new cloud computing infrastructure built by Amazon AMZN Web Services are pretty happy about it thus far, according to a report in NextGov.

The use of a single set of infrastructure improves security over using older multiple data centers, speakers said. Jason Hess, cloud security manager for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the first of 17 agencies to put an application in the new cloud, said consolidation means less complexity, which makes the infrastructure easier to protect.

Two years ago, the CIA selected AWS to build and run a special, secure cloud to be used by 17 intelligence-related agencies, in a contract valued at $600 million. That was a watershed event for Amazon, the leader in public cloud services. Many companies with regulatory and compliance concerns resist the notion of using public cloud infrastructure, in which resources are typically shared by many customers, although Amazon cordons off sections of its public cloud for use by select customers.


Why Amazon’s Collaboration With the CIA Is So Ominous — and Vulnerable | HUFFINGTON POST | FEB 20, 2014

As the world’s biggest online retailer, Amazon wants a benevolent image to encourage trust from customers. Obtaining vast quantities of their personal information has been central to the firm’ business model.

Amazon is diversifying — and a few months ago the company signed a $600 million contract with the Central Intelligence Agency to provide “cloud computing” services.
Amazon now has the means, motive and opportunity to provide huge amounts of customer information to its new business partner. An official statement from Amazon headquarters last fall declared: “We look forward to a successful relationship with the CIA.”

The Central Intelligence Agency has plenty of money to throw around. Thanks to documents provided by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, we know that the CIA’s annual budget is $14.7 billion; the NSA’s is $10.8 billion.

The Cloud has been a Godsend | NEXTGOV | AUG 12, 2016

One of the CIA’s top security officials said the cloud infrastructure built by Amazon Web Services is improving the spy agency’s cybersecurity posture and speed to mission handling national security threats.

“We’re very happy with it,” Nicely added. “Our agency and other [intelligence community] components are busily working to move their workloads into the cloud, and off legacy and into the new.”



Inside Romania’s secret CIA prison | THE INDEPENDENT | DEC 08, 2011

In northern Bucharest, in a busy residential neighbourhood minutes from the heart of the capital city, is a secret the Romanian government has long tried to protect.

For years, the CIA used a government building — codenamed “Bright Light” — as a makeshift prison for its most valuable detainees. There it held al-Qa’ida operatives Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the mastermind of 9/11, and others in a basement prison before they were ultimately transferred to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in 2006, according to former US intelligence officials familiar with the location and inner workings of the prison.

The existence of a CIA prison in Romania has been widely reported, but its location has never been made public. The Associated Press and German public television ARD located the former prison and learned details of the facility where harsh interrogation tactics were used. ARD’s programme on the CIA prison is set to air today.

The Romanian prison was part of a network of so-called black sites that the CIA operated and controlled overseas in Thailand, Lithuania and Poland. All the prisons were closed by May 2006, and the CIA’s detention and interrogation programme ended in 2009.

The CIA prison opened for business in the autumn of 2003, after the CIA decided to empty the black site in Poland, according to former US officials.

Lawyer: CIA gave Romania millions to host secret prisons | FOX NEWS | JUN 29, 2016

BUCHAREST, Romania –  A rights lawyer says Romania was paid “millions of dollars” by the CIA to host secret prisons. He spoke at a European Court of Human Rights hearing into accusations that Romania allowed the agency to torture terrorism suspects as part of a secret renditions program under President George W. Bush.

Amrit Singh told the court on Wednesday there were CIA prisons in Romania from 2003-2005 with Romania’s “acquiescence and connivance.”

Singh said her client, Saudi Arabian national Abd al-Rahim Al Nashiri, was shackled, slapped and given forced rectal feeding at a Bucharest CIA prison in 2004. He is currently in U.S. custody at Guantanamo Bay.

Department of State Travel Information: Romania |DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Be cautious about entering into contracts with Romanian businesses and/or organizations without legal assistance. Both official and societal corruption remains problematic in Romania. The Romanian legal system is difficult for foreigners to navigate, making the assistance of a local attorney nearly essential.

See the Department of State and the FBI pages for information on scams.

Balkan Transnational Organized Crime Groups | FBI

Balkan TOC groups are politically and financially motivated groups influenced by, associated with, or originating from Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania. These organized crime groups cause significant financial harm to the United States each year.

Unlike traditional organized crime groups, Balkan groups do not appear to operate under a traditional hierarchy, but rather around ethnic associations and friendship ties. They also appear to be more agile, organic, and project-based. Balkan TOC groups are adept at adopting new technologies, thus increasing their ability to expand their criminal market base through cyber-enabled fraud.

These groups engage in a myriad of criminal activity including passport fraud, access device fraud, identify theft, healthcare fraud, real estate fraud, insurance fraud, money laundering, drug trafficking, human smuggling, prostitution, and extortion.

Romania Information | CIA FACTBOOK

Illicit drugs:
Major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos


Economy – overview:
Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country’s needs. Romania’s macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania’s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Disputes – international:
The ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine’s reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

National anthem: “Desteapta-te romane!” (Wake up, Romanian!)


Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley


International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Regis College | B.A. in French & Spanish (graduated 1974)
Department of State | Congressional Liaison Officer (1977 – 1979)
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe | Congressional Liaison (1980 – 1981)
Department of State | Ambassador to Portugal (1994 – 1997)
Department of State | Senior Advisor to the Secretary of State Madeleine Albright (1997 – 2001) during which time she established and headed the Office of Media Programming Acquisition in the “newly independent” Balkan States and served as Senate liaison for NATO Enlargement.
Department of State | Special Representative for Global Partnerships (2009 – 2013)
Department of State | Senior Advisor for Secretary’s Initiatives in the Office of the Secretary of State under John Kerry

U.N. General Assembly | U.S. Representative
US Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy | Vice Chair
Democratic National Committee | Chair, National Advisory Board

Council on Foreign Relations | Associate Director, Task Force on Democracy
Foreign Affairs Museum Council | Member
The Atlantic Council of the United States | Member, Board of Directors (Current)
Securing America’s Future Energy | Co-Chair, Diplomatic Council on Energy Security
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs | Member, Board of Directors (Current)
The American Ireland Fund | Member, Board of Directors (Current)

Smith Bagley, Inc. | Director
Clinton Community Library | Chair, Board of Trustees (past)

Clinton Foundation Donations

Smith and Elizabeth Bagley | $1,000,001 – $5,000,000 to the Clinton foundation | The Clinton Foundation: The Contributors
Smith Bagley, Inc. doing business as CellularOne | $50,000 – $100,000 to the Clinton Foundation
The American Ireland Fund | $250,000-$500,000


Smith Bagley provides commercial mobile wireless service in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, and has extensive wireless coverage throughout Native American lands, including federally recognized tribal lands such as the Navajo Nation and the White Mountain Apache Indian Reservation.

Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | SKOLL

From 1994 to 1997, she served as the U.S. Ambassador to Portugal. Ambassador Bagley is a longstanding member of The Council on Foreign Relations and the Clinton Library Foundation.

She served as Senior Advisor under former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright where she established and headed the Office of Media Programming Acquisition for the newly independent Balkan states.

Ambassador Bagley was sworn in as Special Representative for Global Partnerships in the Office of the Secretary of State on June 18, 2009.

On Public-Private Partnerships: A Conversation with Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | DELOITTE REVIEW | 2010

The past several decades have witnessed a marked shift in sources of foreign aid. Whereas the bulk of the money flowing from the United States to the developing world in the 1960s was official development assistance, today over 80 percent of it comes from private sources. In response to the increased role the private sector and civil society are playing in international development, the U.S. Department of State is shifting the way it views the department’s role in advancing U.S. foreign policy objectives.

To better integrate the development work being undertaken across regions and by different sectors, the State Department has created a new office under Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton responsible for creating partnerships with individuals, businesses and not-for-profit organizations around issues of common interest ranging from food security to HIV/AIDS.

To lead this effort, Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley Bagley was appointed Special Representative for Global Partnerships. In this role, she leads the State Department’s new Global Partnership Initiative, making public-private partnerships a core component of diplomacy. A seasoned diplomat, Ambassador Bagley comes to this newly created position having previously served as Senior Advisor to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and as U.S. Ambassador to Portugal.

WIKILEAKS – PODESTA – a new generation of donors
CNN – Fundraising with stars at the home of Elizabeth Bagley




OUR HISTORY | Responding to tragedy

The International Center for Missing & Exploited Children held its first Board of Directors meeting in May 1998. It was officially launched in April 1999 by Hillary Clinton, then-First Lady of the United States, and Cherie Blair, wife of British Prime Minister Tony Blair.

ICMEC was born out of tragedy, created as a reaction to heinous crimes committed against children. Since our inception, we have worked to safeguard children from abduction, sexual abuse and exploitation, partnering with governments, academia, law enforcement, and the NGO community, to offer a range of practical measures that protect children.

Since we opened our doors to the world we have trained over 7,500 law enforcement officers. We have contributed substantially to both new and refined laws against child pornography in 100 countries. We have expanded the Global Missing Children’s Network; 24 countries are now members. We have advocated for the commemoration of International Missing Children’s Day, which is presently recognized on May 25th in 17 countries across four continents. And we have expanded our global partnerships.






Keep this in mind. Elizabeth Frawley Bagley | Senior Advisor to former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright

Returning to Organized Crime

The Spoils of War: Afghanistan’s Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade | Washington’s Hidden Agenda: Restore the Drug Trade | GLOBAL RESEARCH.

In 2014 the Afghan opium cultivation has once again hit a record high, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s 2014 Afghan Opium Survey.


Post 9/11 Afghanistan: Opium Cultivation, Production Increases Nearly 20-Fold | BREITBART | SEP 11, 2016

Opium cultivation and production has thrived over the course of the Afghanistan war despite a dramatic drop after the U.S. and NATO ended their combat mission in Afghanistan and withdrew most of their troops at the end of 2014.

Amid the ongoing heroin epidemic in the United States that is killing thousands, the White House and other government agencies have sounded the alarm on Afghanistan heroin possibly flowing into the U.S. through Canada, where most of the heroin available is from Afghanistan.



Tasked With Combating Opium, Afghan Officials Profit From It | NEW YORK TIMES | FEB 15, 2016

More than ever, Afghan government officials have become directly involved in the opium trade, expanding their competition with the Taliban beyond politics and into a struggle for control of the drug traffic and revenue.

Middle Eastern Transnational Organized Crime Groups | FBI

Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the FBI has taken a new look at the various criminal threats originating in the Middle East and from Middle Eastern communities in the United States. The Bureau, and law enforcement in general, recognize that Middle Eastern criminal groups often have no direct nexus to terror. Rather, these groups frequently have the same goals as any traditional organized crime ring—to make money through illegal activities.

Criminal groups with associations to the Middle East have been active in the U.S. since at least the 1970s, particularly in areas with significant Middle Eastern or Southwest Asian populations. These organizations are typically loosely organized theft or financial fraud rings formed along familial or tribal lines, and include criminals from Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. They typically use small storefronts as bases for criminal operations.



Clinton Foundation Donors Got Weapons Deals From Hillary Clinton’s State Department | INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TIMES | MAY 26, 2015

Bahrain’s Prince Got Audience With Clinton After Donating $32 Million To Her Foundation | THE DAILY CALLER | AUG 22, 2016

Newly released Department of State documents reveal that the Crown Prince of Bahrain was given an audience with then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton after he donated $32 million to her foundation.

Bahrain’s Crown Prince Salman had to go through the Clinton Foundation in order to set up a meeting with Clinton after the former Secretary of State declined to meet after official requests were made.

Salman was a major donor to the Clinton Foundation, having pledged millions to the Clinton Global Initiative through the Crown Prince’s International Scholarship Program (CRISP). By 2010, he had given $32 million to the initiative.

Emails Show Clinton Foundation Donor Reached Out To Hillary Clinton Before Arms Export Boost | INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TIMES | AUG 22, 2016

Emails just released by the State Department appear to show Clinton Foundation officials brokering a meeting between then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and a top military leader of Bahrain, a Middle Eastern country that is a major foundation donor.

Soon after the correspondence about a meeting, Clinton’s State Department significantly increased arms export authorizations to the country’s autocratic government, even as that nation moved to crush pro-democracy protests.

Historical precedent:


Biological warfare waged against Native Americans | Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac’s Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America | David Dixon | 2005

1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic | WIKIPEDIA PAGE | FEB 12, 2017

Did the U.S. Army Distribute Smallpox Blankets to Indians? Fabrication and Falsification in Ward Churchill’s Genocide Rhetoric | Thomas Brown

“Churchill has habitually committed multiple counts of research misconduct–specifically, fabrication and falsification. While acknowledging the ‘politicization’ of the topic and evidence of other outrages committed against Native American tribes in times past, this study examines the different versions of the “smallpox blankets” episode published by Churchill between 1994 and 2003.”

“Confirmed: Ward Churchill is a Fraud, Part 1” | FRONT PAGE MAG | JUN 8, 2005


“We do not find academic misconduct with respect to his general claim that the U.S. Army deliberately spread smallpox to Mandan Indians at Fort Clark in 1837, using infected blankets. Early accounts of what was said by Indians involved in that situation and certain native oral traditions provide some basis for that interpretation.” | UC BOULDER | MAY 9, 2006

A Lesson From the Churchill Inquiry | INSIDE HIGHER ED | JUN 30, 2006

Jon Wiener writes that Colorado deserves praise for its investigation — in large part because it included the context, not just the charges.

The beginning of biological war

MISSION TO SOMALIA; Bush Declares Goal in Somalia to ‘Save Thousands’ | NY TIMES | DEC 5, 1992

WASHINGTON, Dec. 4— President Bush ordered troops into Somalia today on a mission to “save thousands of innocents,” as the Pentagon outlined an operation that will leave soldiers and marines in Somalia well into the Administration of President Bill Clinton.

Mr. Bush gathered broad support for the intervention from top leaders of Congress, from other world leaders and from Mr. Clinton himself, and then went on television at midday to announce an operation that thrusts the United States into a new post-cold-war role as a military force on behalf of humanitarian, not strategic ends.

But the bulk of the force will be American. Administration officials expressed hope that the United States could begin to hand off some of the country to the existing United Nations peacekeeping operation before Mr. Clinton is inaugurated on Jan. 20, but it was clear that the new President would inherit an ongoing military operation.

Defense Secretary Dick Cheney and Gen. Colin L. Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said at a news briefing that American support troops and marines stationed on ships off shore would be left on duty for an undetermined period to act as a deterrent to Somalia’s warring clans even after most of the American expeditionary force was withdrawn.

“Our mission is humanitarian,” he said, but commanders will “take whatever military action is necessary to safeguard the lives of our troops and the lives of Somalia’s people.”

General Powell later said that includes the right to stage pre-emptive strikes against threats to American forces.

20/20 Hindsight

Did the U.S. Help Saddam Acquire Biological Weapons | FAS | SEP 20, 2002

Colin Powell Congressional testimony that got us into Iraq | CNN | FEB 6, 2003

Black Hawk Down | OCT 3-4, 1993

18 U.S. soldiers were killed and 73 wounded in an attempt to apprehend warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid at the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia. The American public was appalled at the deaths and support for American involvement in African affairs suffered as a result.

It was against this backdrop that the Rwandan Genocide began.

Rwandan Genocide | APR 6, 1994 –

On April 6, 1994, Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the President of Burundi, were both killed when their plane was shot down on approach to Kigali Airport in Rwanda.

Responsibility for the assassinations has never been clearly established, however, the resulting chaos was the catalyst for the masacre of Tutsis at the hands of Rwanda’s Hutu majority.

Ambassador Bushnell warned the Clinton Administration in advance

Bushnell, who had been visiting the area just weeks before, released a memorandum immediately following the assassinations.

In it, she predicted widespread violence and the military take-over of the Rwandan government and urged the U.S. government to take action to maintain order.

Partly as a result of the Somali incident, the U.S. government chose not to heed Bushnell’s recommendations, and on the next day, April 7, the Rwandan Genocide began when several Tutsi government officials and moderate Hutu Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana were killed by Hutu militias.

Clinton did nothing.

Rwanda genocide: 100 days of slaughter | BBC | APR 7, 2014

In just 100 days in 1994, some 800,000 people were slaughtered in Rwanda by ethnic Hutu extremists. They were targeting members of the minority Tutsi community, as well as their political opponents, irrespective of their ethnic origin.

How was the genocide carried out? Systematically.

With meticulous organisation.

Lists of government opponents were handed out to militias who went and killed them, along with all of their families.

Neighbours killed neighbours and some husbands even killed their Tutsi wives, saying they would be killed if they refused.

At the time, ID cards had people’s ethnic group on them, so militias set up roadblocks where Tutsis were slaughtered, often with machetes which most Rwandans kept around the house.

Thousands of Tutsi women were taken away and kept as sex slaves.

Did anyone try to stop it? No.

The UN and Belgium had forces in Rwanda but the UN mission was not given a mandate to stop the killing.

The US was determined not to get involved in another African conflict.

The Belgians and most UN peacekeepers pulled out after 10 Belgian soldiers were killed.

The French, who were allies of the Hutu government, sent a force to set up a supposedly safe zone but were accused of not doing enough to stop the slaughter in that area.

Rwanda’s current president has accused France of taking part in the massacres – a charge denied by Paris.

How did it end? Paul Kagame – The Global Elite’s Favorite Strongman

The well-organised Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), backed by Uganda’s army, gradually seized more territory, until 4 July, when its forces marched into the capital, Kigali.

RPF leader and President, Paul Kagame, has been hailed for overseeing rapid economic growth in the tiny country. He has also tried to turn Rwanda into a technological hub and is very active on Twitter.

His critics say he does not tolerate dissent and several opponents have met unexplained deaths.

Vision 2020 | MINECOFINdotGOV

Vision 2020 is a Government development program in Rwanda, launched in 2000 by Rwandan president Paul Kagame.

Its main objective is transforming the country into a knowledge-based middle-income country, thereby reducing poverty, health problems and making the nation united and democratic.

The programme consists of a list of goals which the government aims to achieve before the year 2020:

Good governance
An efficient state
Skilled human capital, including education, health and information technology
A vibrant private sector
A world-class physical infrastructure
Modern agriculture and livestock


The Government of Rwanda (GOR) is pressing forward with development of diversified renewable energy sources to satisfy the majority of its power generation needs by 2012.

MININFRA Donor Coordinator Eva Paul told Wadelton Rwanda is on track to achieve its energy goals and that “the political will is there.” United States-based Contour Global is working to extract methane gas accumulating in Lake Kivu.

Construction of two new hydroelectric plants will add 37MW to the national grid within three years. Additionally, the governments of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi and Tanzania are planning additional multinational hydro projects in Rusizi and Rusumo, she said.

NGOs and development agencies such as USAID are assisting the GOR electrify off-grid health clinics and administrative centers with solar power.

American entrepreneurs are taking the lead in providing solar power solutions to rural communities. Sam Dargan, CEO of Great Lakes Solar Energy, told Wadelton he was interested in providing solar appliances to rural communities–not for social or conservation reasons–but because it was profitable.

Josh Kefauver, COO of United States-based Manna Energy, is working with the GOR to equip rural communities and secondary schools with solar powered water purifiers using ultraviolet light to kill harmful bacteria.

Dargan, citing an example of donor-provided solar powered cell phone chargers to health care workers, said such practices made it more difficult for him to sell similar products for a profit. Free donor-provided resources have inhibited private sector investment in renewable energy, he stated.


The government of Rwanda (GOR) is aggressively promoting “clean and green” energy (Ref A), conservation and reforestation.

The impacts of climate change are cross-cutting and have affected agriculture, health, energy and degradation of eco-systems. The report estimates that the risk to the rural population from malaria could increase by 150 percent by 2050, adding an additional economic burden to the country.

The Director General of the Rwanda Environmental Management Authority (REMA) Dr. Rose Mukankomeje promoted early warning systems, introducing of crop species resistant to environmental stress, developing renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources and pursuing aggressive reforestation and afforestation programs.

On October 28 the GOR approved a U.S. private sector-sponsored biofuels project in eastern Rwanda. Run by American-owned Eco-Fuel Global and British-owned Eco-Fuel Positive, the project will develop land for production of jatropha and build vegetable oil extraction facilities to process jatropha oil and jatropha seed cake (used as fertilizer).

Still among the poorest countries in the world, Rwanda would benefit from more flexible assistance programs and active private sector investment supported by OPIC, EXIM and USTDA (as in the case of Contour Global’s methane and Eco-Fuel Global’s biofuels). This could make the climate change challenge a win-win for Rwandan and American investors by encouraging more investment and mutually beneficial trade.

Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda | ACCORD | OCT 26, 2010

Empirical evidence obtained and secondary data sources indicate that the genocide in Rwanda destroyed not only human resources and social and cultural structures but also infrastructure, development facilities and natural resources which had serious negative consequences on the total environment.

Spread of malaria

The primary research also shows that malaria has now become evident in Cyangugu and other areas where previously this was rare. Most leaders reported that after the genocide malaria posed a significant problem with serious consequences for much of the population. Leaders attributed the prevalence of the disease to poor environmental management and poverty.

Poverty, Global Health and Infectious Disease: Lessons from Haiti and Rwanda | NCBI | SEP 1, 2012

As demonstrated above, poverty and associated disease rarely arise de novo. Heavy burdens of disease predictably strike those places, most often resource-poor communities, where structural violence weighs most heavily. Moreover, structural violence—institutionalized biases and inequalities including racism, elitism, gender inequality, militarism, and economic policy that fosters inequity—often emanates from global centers of power and privilege, and increases the risk of encounter with communicable disease [18].


In 1996, Prudence Bushnell was appointed ambassador to Kenya.

Stationed at the US Embassy in Nairobi, she used her office to push Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi to institute democratic reforms and to root out corruption in his government, a major drag on Kenya’s economy.

Bushnell soon became alarmed at the vulnerability of the U.S. embassy compound to attack.

Before Bombings, Omens and Fears | NEW YORK TIMES | JAN 9, 1999

In the spring of 1998, Prudence Bushnell, the U.S. ambassador to Kenya, sent an emotional letter to Secretary of State Madeleine Albright begging for the secretary’s personal help.

Ms. Bushnell, a career diplomat, had been fighting for months for a more secure embassy in the face of mounting terrorist threats and a warning that she was the target of an assassination plot.

The department had repeatedly refused to grant her request, citing a lack of money. But that kind of response, she wrote Albright, was “endangering the lives of embassy personnel.”

The CIA and the FBI had been amassing increasingly ominous and detailed clues about potential threats in Kenya, officials said. But the State Department bureaucracy still dismissed Ms. Bushnell.

Albright took no action. And three months later, on Aug. 7, the American Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya were simultaneously attacked with car bombs. Twelve American diplomats and more than 200 Africans were killed in Kenya.

The State Department has acknowledged that Ms. Bushnell raised questions about security before the bombing. But a close examination of events in the year before the assaults, based on interviews with officials throughout the U.S. government, shows her concerns were more intense, more well-founded, more specific, and more forcefully expressed than has previously been known.

The CIA repeatedly told State Department officials in Washington and in the Kenya Embassy that there was an active terrorist cell in Kenya connected to Osama bin Laden, the Saudi exile who is accused of masterminding the attack.

The CIA and FBI investigated at least three terrorist threats in Nairobi in the year before the bombing and took one seriously enough to send a counter-terrorism team from CIA headquarters. The agency ultimately concluded that threat was unfounded, but some officials believe the inquiry was botched, and the agency’s inspector general is investigating how it was handled.

State Department officials brushed aside Gen. Anthony Zinni, commander of the U.S. Central Command, who had visited Nairobi on his own and warned that the Nairobi embassy was an easy and tempting target for terrorists. Zinni’s offer to send his own specialists to review security in Nairobi was turned down by the State Department.

Bombs Explode at 2 U.S. Embassies in Africa; Scores Dead | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 8, 1998

Powerful terrorist car bombs exploded just minutes apart outside U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania yesterday, killing at least 81 people — including eight Americans — and injuring more than 1,600. With dozens more Kenyans possibly buried in the rubble of a building next to the embassy, authorities said they fear the death toll could rise much higher.

As U.S. disaster relief units and anti-terrorism specialists were rushed to the two East African capitals, President Clinton angrily vowed to bring justice to those who committed the “cowardly attacks.”

Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright rushed back to Washington, stating that the administration will “spare no effort to use all means at our disposal to track down and punish the perpetrators of these outrageous acts.”

House Speaker Newt Gingrich said the bombings “should be a reminder to all of us that it is a dangerous world as we enter the 21st century. We need much better human intelligence, much more sophisticated efforts to go after terrorists and others.”

U.S. received detailed warning of embassy bombing, officials say Egyptian man reportedly told of plans 9 months before Kenya attack | BALTIMORE SUN | OCT 23, 1998

NAIROBI, Kenya — Nine months before the attack on the American Embassy here, U.S. intelligence officials received a detailed warning that Islamic radicals were plotting to blow up the building, according to Kenyan and American officials.

The warning forecast the Aug. 7 bombing in several particulars, the officials said. It came from an Egyptian man who American officials now believe was involved in the simultaneous terrorist assaults on the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

The Egyptian, Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed, is now in jail in Tanzania, charged by local prosecutors with bombing the embassy there.

Tanzanian authorities have not allowed Ahmed to be interviewed, and it was unclear what motivated him to alert authorities about a plot in which he appears to have played a role. He told the Kenyans that in the past he had provided authorities with information about Islamic radicals because he wanted to see them arrested and rehabilitated rather than caught committing a crime for which they would be executed.

A Tanzanian court refused to release Ahmed on bail this week and ruled that FBI agents would be permitted to interrogate him.

Tanzanian investigators suspect he was a central figure in the plot.

The Clinton administration has not sought to extradite Ahmed from Tanzania. Several non-American diplomats in the region speculated that the United States is allowing the Tanzanians to try Ahmed because they fear his trial in America might bring to light his dealings with U.S. authorities and other Western intelligence services.

In the days after the bombings, the administration acknowledged that it had spurned requests from the American ambassador in Kenya, Prudence Bushnell, to move the entire embassy to a safer location. The State Department would not say whether her cables mentioned Ahmed’s warning.

Warnings to the FBI: Could the Bombings Have Been Prevented? | PBS

A year before the U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa, the FBI and the Kenya police raided the house of Wadih El Hage in Nairobi, Kenya in August of 1997 and found a very disturbing letter on his computer hard drive. The letter, which the FBI believes was written by Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, AKA Haroun Fazul, outlines the presence of a bin Laden terrorist “cell” in Nairobi and clearly states the member’s knowledge of bin Laden’s call to kill Americans.

The Warnings

As early as 1994, United States intelligence officials were receiving worrisome reports about Osama bin Laden.

By 1996, the United States Justice Department quietly convened a grand jury in New York to investigate Osama bin Laden, and FBI investigators began building a case against him.

The CIA was simultaneously gathering intelligence about bin Laden and his associates.

Some of this evidence led the investigators to Kenya. In Kenya, there were two concrete warnings about an embassy attack during 1997.

According to intelligence sources, the CIA and FBI kept U.S. Ambassador to Kenya Prudence Bushnell and her staff fully informed about the warnings and the possible threat.

However, some embassy officials dispute this, saying they were not kept in the loop about the seriousness of the threat.

Throughout this period, Bushnell was pleading with the State Department to provide a new building or seriously upgrade security at the old building.

The State Department did not consider Nairobi a high-risk location and ignored Bushnell’s pleas.

The Letter

Summer, 1997 — Wadih El Hage, who worked as a secretary for bin Laden in the Sudan, was found to be living in Nairobi, Kenya.

The FBI, CIA and Kenyan police cooperated on the August, 1997 raid on Wadih El Hage’s home. Under the pretext of searching for stolen goods, they entered the house and took Mr. El Hage’s computer.

On the hard drive of that computer, investigators found a chilling letter, which they now believe was written by El Hage’s houseguest, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed or Haroun Fazul. Fazul was also linked to bin Laden in the Sudan and had been living with the El Hage family in Kenya.

The letter clearly outlines the presence of a clandestine “cell” in Nairobi, operating under the instructions of “the Haj” or Osama bin Laden.

Just after the raid, the investigators interviewed Wadih El Hage in Nairobi. According to El Hage’s mother-in-law, the FBI repeatedly told both El Hage and his wife to leave the country. The agents insinuated that the family was in danger should they remain in the country. El Hage took them seriously and returned to the United States with his family in September of 1997.

It is unclear whether the investigators knew about Haroun Fazul at this time, or understood that he had been the author of the letter. Fazul somehow escaped their notice and continued his activities in Nairobi.He would later be declared the mastermind of the Nairobi bombing. In fact, on the day of the actual bombing, he drove the lead truck that led the bomb to the United States Embassy.

Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed

November, 1997 – Near the end of 1997, an Egyptian named Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed walked into the United States Embassy in Nairobi and told a CIA agent that he knew of a plan to detonate a truck bomb in the parking garage of the embassy.

He was interrogated by Kenyan police and admitted that he had taken part in surveillance of the embassy, including taking photos.

For unknown reasons, the CIA did not take Mr. Ahmed’s statements seriously and he was deported. The CIA issued two intelligence reports on the warning, but called into question the credibility of Mr. Ahmed.

Mr. Ahmed was arrested in Tanzania just after the 1998 summer bombings and has been charged in conjunction with the Dar Es Salaam bombing attack.

Doctor who helped CIA track bin Laden still languishes in Pakistan jail | TELEGRAPH | MAY 2, 2016

Iran: Scientist who gave US nuclear intelligence executed | FOX NEWS | AUG 07, 2016

How an Iranian’s Spy Saga Ends, 6 Years Later: He’s Executed | NEW YORK TIMES | AUG 7, 2016

Cotton: Clinton discussed executed Iranian scientist on email | WASHINGTON EXAMINER | AUG 7, 2016

50 U.S.C. § 421 : US Code – Section 421: Protection of identities of certain United States undercover intelligence officers, agents, informants, and sources

(a) Disclosure of information by persons having or having had access to classified information that identifies covert agent Whoever, having or having had authorized access to classified information that identifies a covert agent, intentionally discloses any information identifying such covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such covert agent and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such covert agent’s intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 15 years, or both.

(b) Disclosure of information by persons who learn identity of covert agents as result of having access to classified information Whoever, as a result of having authorized access to classified information, learns the identify of a covert agent and intentionally discloses any information identifying such covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such covert agent and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such covert agent’s intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

(c) Disclosure of information by persons in course of pattern of activities intended to identify and expose covert agents Whoever, in the course of a pattern of activities intended to identify and expose covert agents and with reason to believe that such activities would impair or impede the foreign intelligence activities of the United States, discloses any information that identifies an individual as a covert agent to any individual not authorized to receive classified information, knowing that the information disclosed so identifies such individual and that the United States is taking affirmative measures to conceal such individual’s classified intelligence relationship to the United States, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.

(d) Imposition of consecutive sentences A term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be consecutive to any other sentence of imprisonment.

Getting back to the bombings:

Although Kenyans and Tanzanians accounted for the vast majority of dead and injured in today’s attacks, the bombings together killed and injured more Americans than any terrorist attack on a U.S. installation abroad since a truck bomb exploded outside the Khobar Towers military housing complex near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, on June 25, 1996, killing 19 Americans and injuring more than 500 U.S. servicemen and Saudis.


According to journalist Lawrence Wright, the Nairobi operation was named after the Holy Kaaba in Mecca; the Dar es Salaam bombing was called Operation al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, but “neither had an obvious connection to the American embassies in Africa.

Bin Laden initially said that the sites had been targeted because of the ‘invasion’ of Somalia;

Then he described an American plan to partition Sudan, which he said was hatched in the embassy in Nairobi.

He also told his followers that the genocide in Rwanda had been planned inside the two American embassies.”

Wright concludes that bin Laden’s actual goal was “to lure the United States into Afghanistan, which had long been called ‘The Graveyard of Empires.'”

Who investigated this stuff? | FBI

Comey Politicized the FBI, Brennan the CIA | NEWSWEEK | FEB 20, 2017

John O. Brennan

His term as CIA Director coincided with revelations that the U.S. government conducted massive levels of global surveillance, that the CIA had hacked into the computers of U.S. Senate employees, and the release of the U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture.

While riding a bus to class at Fordham, he saw an ad in The New York Times that said the CIA was recruiting, and he felt a CIA career would be a good match for his “wanderlust” and his desire to do public service.[6] His studies included a junior year abroad learning Arabic and taking Middle Eastern studies courses at the American University in Cairo.[4][6] In 1976, he voted for Communist Party USA candidate Gus Hall in the presidential election; he later said that he viewed it as a way “of signaling my unhappiness with the system, and the need for change.”[16]

Brennan began his CIA career as an analyst, presumably in the Washington D.C. area, and spent 25 years with the agency.[2][6][18] At one point in his career, he was a daily intelligence briefer for President Bill Clinton.[6] In 1996 he was CIA station chief in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia when the Khobar Towers bombing killed 19 U.S. servicemen.[6] In 1999 he was appointed chief of staff to George Tenet, then-Director of the CIA.[4][6] Brennan became deputy executive director of the CIA in March 2001.[4] He was director of the newly created Terrorist Threat Integration Center from 2003 to 2004, an office that sifted through and compiled information for President Bush’s daily top secret intelligence briefings and employed the services of analysts from a dozen U.S. agencies and entities.[19]


North Bergen man is homeland security assistant for President Obama | NORTH JERSEY | DEC 5, 2009

The journey that took John O. Brennan from 74th Street in North Bergen to a West Wing office where President Obama relies on him to coordinate fights against al-Qaida and swine flu started on the bus he rode to Fordham University.

“Using a legitimate term, ‘jihad,’ meaning to purify oneself or to wage a holy struggle for a moral goal, risks giving these murderers the religious legitimacy they desperately seek but in no way deserve,” he said in a speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in August.

Time in Arab world

Brennan’s understanding of the Arab world and the Middle East is the product of years of work there for the CIA.

“I would spend time with the tribes, go out and spend several days with them, travel out into the different areas of the country. I find the Arab world a fascinating place,” he said.

“It’s unfortunate that terrorist incidents have created a false impression of anti-American sentiment in the Arab world. There are elements — radicals, extremists — who harbor those anti-U.S. sentiments, but there are a lot of very positive views toward the United States,” he said.

He saw terrorism close up as CIA station chief in Riyadh in 1996 when a truck bomb blew up the Khobar Towers housing complex and killed 19 U.S. servicemen.

When FBI Director Louis Freeh came out for the investigation, the bombing was not the only thing he and Brennan had to talk about. Freeh had grown up down the block in North Bergen, and Brennan knew him from the neighborhood even though he was several years older.

Keane said he never expected him to join the CIA, and for part of Brennan’s career his cover story was that he was working in the Middle East for the State Department. Later, Keane recalled Brennan having spent the summer after freshman year with a cousin who was working for the Agency for International Development in Indonesia, and visiting Bahrain on the way home.

“I wondered if he had even been recruited that early,” Keane said.

Brennan said the trip after his freshman year “made a lasting impression on me that the world was a big place, that there was more than just North Bergen and Hudson County.”

When a Fordham professor told him about an opportunity to spend his junior year abroad at American University in Cairo, Egypt, he jumped at it and spent part of his time learning Arabic.

Pasquale “Pat” D’Amuro | BLOOMBERG

Much of Mr. D’Amuro’s twenty-six year career in the FBI has been devoted to counterterrorism, in which he is an internationally recognized expert.

After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Mr. D’Amuro was appointed Inspector in Charge of the FBI’s investigation of those attacks.

Mr. D’Amuro served as Assistant Director of the Counterterrorism Division at FBI Headquarters and, later, Executive Assistant Director for Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence. In these capacities, he was instrumental in the creation and management of the FBI’s Terrorism Threat Integration Center and Terrorism Watch List.


Global Risk & Investigative Diligence, LLC | Chairman & CEO
Giuliani Security & Safety LLC, a division of Giuliani Partners LLC | Chairman & CEO (former)
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) | Assistant Director in Charge of the New York FBI Office

Decision Sciences | Chairman of the Board of Advisors.


“Pat’s long experience in conducting counterterrorism investigations includes heading the PENTTBOM investigation and overseeing the investigations of the first World Trade Center bombing, the embassy bombings in East Africa, and the U.S.S. Cole attack. He possesses strong leadership abilities, demonstrated during his tenure as Associate Special Agent in Charge and Acting Special Agent in Charge of the New York Field Office. These investigative and leadership talents, refined by the experience of a 22-year career as a Special Agent of the FBI, make him well prepared to take on the challenge of directing the Counterterrorism Division during a critical period of reorganization and refocusing of the work of the FBI.”


Decision Sciences | Board of Advisors
The Aspen Institute | Member
The Trilateral Commission | Member
The Council on Foreign Relations | Member

Department of Justice, District of Brooklyn | Counsel to the Attorney General for Intelligence Policy (1985 – 1988) | Mentored by Rudolph Giuliani and FBI Director Louis Freeh.
Department of Justice, Southern District of New York | US Attorney International Organized Crime and White Collar Crime (1988 – 1991)

Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General

International Programs | (1991  1993) to assist in establishing the newly created Office of International Programs, the predecessor to the Executive Office for National Security.
Chief of Staff to the Assistance Attorney General, Criminal Division | (1993  1995) played a critical role in establishing the Division’s international training and rule of law programs.
Director of International Affairs, Criminal Division | (1995 – 1997) | which serves as the U. S. Central Authority for extradition and mutual legal assistance, and works with the Department of State in the negotiation of international law enforcement treaties.
Acting Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division | (1997  1998) where she oversaw international law enforcement and training matters, and acted as an advisor to the Attorney General and Deputy Attorney General on international law enforcement policy.
Advisor to the Attorney General & Deputy Attorney General for International Law Enforcement Policy | (1997  1998)
Counsel to AG, Office of Intelligence Policy and Review for National Security Policy & Operations | (1998 – 2000) managing matters related to national security policy and operations for the Department of Justice. In this capacity she headed the office of Intelligence Policy and Review, an office that:

provides legal advice and recommendations to the Attorney General and the Department of Justice regarding national security matters, reviews executive orders, directives and procedures relating to the intelligence community, and approves certain intelligence-gathering activities, especially those matters related to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

Executive Office of the President 

Deputy Assistant to the President & Deputy National Security Advisor For Combating Terrorism | (2003 – 2004)
Assistant to President George W. Bush for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism |
(2004 – 2008)

US Coast Guard |  Assistant Commandant for Intelligence (2000  2003)
Homeland Security Council | Chairman | (2004 – 2008)
Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) | Chairman of Board of Directors

Protiviti Inc. | Advisory Board | (2015 – present)
IrisGuard Incorporated | Advisory Board
MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc. | Executive Vice President of Worldwide Government, Legal and Business Affairs
Aquamarine Investment Partners | Senior Counselor
SAP National Security Services, Inc. | Chair
Monument Capital Group, LLC | Operating Advisor
Freeport-McMoRan Inc. | Independent Director
The Western Union Company | Independent Director
SIGA Technologies | Director | (2011 – 2014)
Business Executives for National Security, Inc.  | Director
Bipartisan Policy Center | Director
Baker Botts L.L.P. | Corporate Partner
CNN | National Security Expert Analyst

An Outsider’s Quick Rise To Bush Terror Adviser – Frances Townsend | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 27, 2005

In September of 2001, she worked for the Coast Guard as the intelligence chief. At the time, the Coast Guard was not part of the “intelligence community” and thus was not allowed to share sensitive information.

She helped the Coast Guard get added to intelligence legislation and transformed the agency’s priority from South American drug-smuggling to the vulnerability of America’s ports.

In Spring of 2003, Richard Clarke and General John A Gordon (Bush’s Homeland Security Chief) lobbied for Townsend, and as a result she was hired on to the National Security Council.

“Frances Townsend runs President Bush’s far-flung campaign against terrorism.”

“She obviously has the confidence of the president, and that has a huge impact on her ability to influence the process,” said Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff.

She is the ‘coordinator, the facilitator, the bridge,’ as FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III put it, between the powerful institutions and clashing egos of a war cabinet.

Among her many mentors, she counts Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, longtime FBI Director Louis J. Freeh and former White House counterterrorism czar Richard A. Clarke.

“Townsend has overseen an intelligence reorganization and is now directing the first White House review of its anti-terrorism campaign since the aftermath of Sept. 11, a process intended to broaden the struggle into a new ‘strategy against violent extremism.”

Until a few months prior to 9/11, she had run the Justice Department’s Office of Intelligence Policy and Review that decided which cases merited supersecret intelligence wiretaps, work that took her inside al Qaeda cases, such as the 1998 embassy bombings in Africa.”

Her office would be a focus of controversy after Sept. 11. As the gatekeeper for intelligence wiretap requests, Townsend’s office fought efforts to invoke the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act in matters that could result in criminal cases, fearing that prosecutors would use such surveillance to circumvent the more difficult threshold for obtaining a criminal wiretap. In practical terms, the result was what commission reports called “The Wall,” fencing off investigators from potentially useful information about suspects on American soil.

In an example cited by a bipartisan congressional commission, Townsend refused to endorse a secret intelligence wiretap on Los Alamos National Laboratories scientist Wen Ho Lee because the FBI’s interest in the case was “way too criminal.”


Secret Court’s Judges Were Warned About NSA Spy Data | WASHINGTON POST page 1 | WASHINGTON POST page 2 | FEB 9, 2006

FISA court is the secret panel created in 1978 in response to a public outcry over warrantless domestic spying by J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI

The FISA court secretly grants warrants for wiretaps, telephone record traces and physical searches to the Justice Department.

Both judges had insisted that no information obtained this way be used to gain warrants from their court, according to government sources, and both had been assured by administration officials it would never happen.

Both presiding judges agreed not to disclose the secret program to the 10 other FISA judges, who routinely handled some of the government’s most highly classified secrets.

The two heads of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court were the only judges in the country briefed by the administration on Bush’s program. The president’s secret order allows the National Security Agency to monitor telephone calls and e-mails between people in the United States and contacts overseas.

They convinced the judges to swear to secrecy, then they lied to them.

Twice in the past four years (2002-2006), a top Justice Department lawyer warned the presiding judge of a secret surveillance court that information overheard in President Bush’s eavesdropping program may have been improperly used to obtain wiretap warrants in the court, according to two sources with knowledge of those events.

Between 1979 and 2004, it approved 18,748 warrants and rejected five.

So early in 2002, they decided that any case in which the government listened to someone’s calls without a warrant, and later developed information to seek a FISA warrant for that same suspect, was to be carefully “tagged” as having involved some NSA information.

Shortly after the warrantless eavesdropping program began, then-NSA Director Michael V. Hayden and Ashcroft made clear in private meetings that the president wanted to detect possible terrorist activity before another attack. They also made clear that, in such a broad hunt for suspicious patterns and activities, the government could never meet the FISA court’s probable-cause requirement, government officials said.

Townsend lied.


The nation’s secret intelligence court has identified more than 75 cases in which it says it was misled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in documents in which the bureau attempted to justify its need for wiretaps and other electronic surveillance, according to the first of the court’s rulings to be released publicly.

In its opinion, the court rejected a secret request made by the Justice Department this year to allow broader cooperation and evidence-sharing between counterintelligence investigators and criminal prosecutors.

FBI. and the Justice Department tried to defy the will of Congress by allowing intelligence material to be shared freely with criminal investigators.

The standards of evidence required for electronic surveillance are much lower in many intelligence investigations than in criminal investigations, the authors of the law wanted to prevent the dissemination of intelligence information to criminal investigators or prosecutors.

In a number of cases the FBI and the Justice Department had made ”erroneous statements” in eavesdropping applications about ”the separation of the overlapping intelligence and criminal investigators and the unauthorized sharing of FISA information with FBI criminal investigators and assistant U.S. attorneys.

The court said that the FBI and the Justice Department were violating the law by allowing information gathered from intelligence eavesdrops to be used freely in bringing criminal charges, without court review, and that criminal investigators were improperly directing the use of counterintelligence wiretaps.

In one case, it said, the error appeared in a statement issued by the office of Louis J. Freeh, then the FBI director, in which the bureau said that target of an intelligence eavesdropping request ”was not under criminal investigation.”

In March of 2001, the court said, ”the government reported similar misstatements in another series of FISA applications in which there was supposed to be a ‘wall’ between separate intelligence and criminal squads in FBI field offices to screen FISA intercepts, when in fact all of the FBI agents were on the same squad and all of the screening was done by the one supervisor overseeing both investigations.”

Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 16, 2005

Months after the Sept. 11 attacks, President Bush secretly authorized the National Security Agency to eavesdrop on Americans and others inside the United States to search for evidence of terrorist activity without the court-approved warrants ordinarily required for domestic spying, according to government officials.

The previously undisclosed decision to permit some eavesdropping inside the country without court approval was a major shift in American intelligence-gathering practices, particularly for the National Security Agency, whose mission is to spy on communications abroad.

Nearly a dozen current and former officials, who were granted anonymity because of the classified nature of the program, discussed it with reporters for The New York Times because of their concerns about the operation’s legality and oversight.

Administration officials are confident that existing safeguards are sufficient to protect the privacy and civil liberties of Americans.

The White House asked The New York Times not to publish this article, arguing that it could jeopardize continuing investigations and alert would-be terrorists that they might be under scrutiny.

President Bush significantly eased limits on American intelligence and law enforcement agencies and the military.

The NSA breaks codes and maintains listening posts around the world to eavesdrop on foreign governments, diplomats and trade negotiators as well as drug lords and terrorists.

Traditionally, the FBI, not the NSA, seeks such warrants and conducts most domestic eavesdropping. Until the new program began, the N.S.A. typically limited its domestic surveillance to foreign embassies and missions in Washington, New York and other cities, and obtained court orders to do so.

Since 2002, the agency has been conducting some warrantless eavesdropping on people in the United States.


FBI Announces Restructuring | FBI | JUL 26, 2006

Director Robert S. Mueller announced structural changes to support the next phase of the FBI’s transformation efforts.

Director Mueller said, “The initial phase of our post-9/11 transformation was our immediate response to the new terrorist threat. The next phase focused on developing enhanced intelligence capabilities.

“Today we are aligning our organization to better support our priorities. This includes a strategic approach to human resources, IT, science and technology, facilities, and budget. This last phase is about institutionalizing the changes we have made to date, and building a foundation to support us into the future.

The FBI began a huge transformation after 9/11. The Bureau’s leadership shifted their focus from fighting conventional crime to fighting terrorism. Director Robert Mueller, describes the structural change as three phases.

Phase 1: The immediate response to 9/11, which included the investigation, establishment of new priorities and the shift toward countering terrorism.

Phase 2: Developed enhanced intelligence capabilities, including the creation of the Directorate of Intelligence and doubled the number of intelligence analysts.

Phase 3: Institutionalizing the changes made to date by altering the command structure to meet the demands of our increased pace of operations and build the foundation for the future.

In July, 2006, Mueller publicly announced the FBI’s advance into the final phase.

A Redeployment at a Realigned FBI | LA TIMES | JUL 27, 2006

WASHINGTON — The FBI broke with one of its most storied traditions Wednesday, announcing changes in its top management that, rather than elevating onetime agents, tapped officials with extensive experience outside of the bureau for several key positions.

Former officials of BP, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the CIA are named to lead branches as the bureau shifts its focus from crime to terrorism. – The changes leave FBI careerists in charge of the bureau’s criminal and intelligence branches. Mueller also named a longtime agent to fill a new position of associate deputy director, but he created three positions that he filled with bureau employees who made their mark elsewhere:

Donald E. Packham, a former BP senior executive, will oversee human resources and training.

Kerry E. Haynes, a former CIA director of technical collection, was picked to run a new science and technology branch.

Chief Information Officer Zalmai Azmi, whose resume includes a stint as a project manager at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, was given expanded duties in his role overseeing the bureau’s computer operations.

Mueller also established a unit to study threats from weapons of mass destruction and named Vahid Majidi, a scientist formerly at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, as its director.

An Outsider’s Quick Rise To Bush Terror Adviser – Frances Townsend | WASHINGTON POST | AUG 27, 2005

“Townsend has overseen an intelligence reorganization and is now directing the first White House review of its anti-terrorism campaign since the aftermath of Sept. 11, a process intended to broaden the struggle into a new ‘strategy against violent extremism.”
Frances Townsend is important.

Returning to the embassy bombings.

1998 US Embassies in Africa Bombings Fast Facts | CNN | JULY 27, 2015

August 7, 1998 – Almost simultaneously, bombs explode at U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, killing 224 people. More than 5,000 are wounded. Twelve of those killed in Kenya are U.S. citizens.

August 20, 1998 – The U.S. launches cruise missiles at suspected terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, in retaliation for the embassy bombings.

Africa embassy bombings: attacks that propelled Bin Laden into the limelight | THE GUARDIAN | JAN 20, 2015

On 20 August 1998, the factory was destroyed in cruise missile strikes launched by the United States military allegedly in retaliation for the truck bombattacks on its embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya on 7 August. The administration of President Bill Clinton justified the attacks, dubbed Operation Infinite Reach, on the grounds that the al-Shifa plant was involved with processing the deadly nerve agent VX, and had ties with the Islamist al-Qaeda group of Osama bin Laden.

Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory

The Al-Shifa (الشفاء, Arabic for “healing”) pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North, Sudan, was constructed between 1992 and 1996 with components imported from Germany, India, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States. It was opened 12 July 1997.


U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan | CNN | AUG 20, 1998

Sudanese television showed piles of rubble at the factory and fire raging in the distance. People were seen walking through the damage, wearing masks.

Sudanese officials reacted angrily to the attacks. Interior Minister Abdul Rahim told CNN in a telephone interview that the privately owned pharmaceutical firm had “nothing to do with chemical weapons.”

“We have no chemical weapons factory in our country,” he said.

A statement read on Sudanese television about an hour after the attack said, “The wrongful American air force launched air attacks on Sudan tonight which aimed at strategic and vital areas.” There was no report as to the number of casualties.

Well he wasn’t lying. They didn’t have any.

The Missiles of August | NEW YORKER | OCT 12, 1998

“The Sudanese plant, depicted by the White House as a chemical-warfare facility, was one of 2 targets in a retaliatory raid against Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden, who was linked to the bombings of American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania earlier that month; Tomahawks were also fired at sites in Afghanistan suspected to be terrorist training camps under the control of bin Laden.”

They bomb pharmacies, don’t they? | SALON | SEP 23, 1998

On Aug. 20, President Clinton personally ordered the leveling of the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant on the outskirts of Khartoum.

Sources in U.S. Intelligence apparently claimed that there was only one “window” through which to strike at bin Laden, and that the only time they could hope to hit his Afghan fastness by this remote means was on the night of Monica Lewinsky’s return to the grand jury.

Look at the Place! Sudan Says, ‘Say Sorry,’ but U.S. Won’t | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 20, 2005

“Sudan’s government wants the Shifa factory preserved just as it was shortly after 13 Tomahawk cruise missiles took it out in the early evening of August 20. The destroyed factory has become a monument of sorts, a place that Sudanese authorities say symbolizes the mistreatment they have suffered at the hands of the world’s superpower.”

“The government wants it as a showcase,” said Eltayeb Hag Ateya, director of the Peace Studies Institute at the University of Khartoum. “It’s still a thorn in Sudan-American relations. It will always be a point for the Sudanese government to bring up.”

“Well then, what was the hurry? A hurry that was panicky enough for the president and his advisors to pick the wrong objective and then, stained with embarrassment and retraction, to refuse the open inquiry that could have settled the question in the first place? There is really only one possible answer to that question. Clinton needed to look “presidential” for a day.”

The Observer noted:

“The loss of this factory is a tragedy for the rural communities who need these medicines” quoting Tom Carnaffin, technical manager with “intimate knowledge” of the destroyed plant.

A month later, Guardian correspondent Patrick Wintour elaborated that the plant “provided 50 percent of Sudan’s medicines, and its destruction has left the country with no supplies of chloroquine, the standard treatment for malaria”. (Wintour, Patrick, The Observer, 20 December 1998.)

He continued that, despite this, the

British government (who publicly backed the attack) refused requests “to resupply chloroquine in emergency relief until such time as the Sudanese can rebuild their pharmaceutical production”.


The factory was a principal source of Sudan’s anti-malaria and veterinary drugs according to the CBW Conventions Bulletin. | THE CBW CONVENTIONS BULLETIN

Coincidentally Malaria Spirals Out of Control


Malaria Surveillance – United States, 1999 | CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL


The 25.5% increase in malaria cases in 1999, compared with 1998, resulted primarily from increases in cases acquired in Africa and the Americas.

This increase is possibly related to a change in the system by which states report to CDC, but it could also have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, increased travel to these regions, improved reporting to state and local health departments, or a decreased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.

In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country where they acquired malaria.

Public Complain of Malaria Vaccine Shortage | GHANA WEB | NOV 3, 2000

The general public has raised concern and doubt over malaria vaccines, which they said are running short in health centres.

In an interview in health centres, members of the public expressed ‘strong interest’, calling for ‘immediate’ explanation from the health department over what they saw as the acute shortage of chloroquine vaccines at a time when malaria is taking a high toll on the population.

Time to act! What can USAID do for you?


United States Agency for International Development

USAID’s programs are authorized by the Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act, which the Congress supplements through directions in annual funding appropriation acts and other legislation. Although it is technically an independent agency, USAID operates subject to the foreign policy guidance of the President, Secretary of State, and the National Security Council. USAID operates in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.

Evaluating Malaria Interventions In Africa: A Review and Assessment of Recent Research | USAID | NOV 1999

“According to the most recent data, 40% (2,400 million) of the world population in over 90 countries is affected by malaria. In any given year, nearly 10% of the global population will suffer a case of malaria (Malaria International, 1998).”

“There are 300 – 500 million clinical cases of malaria worldwide each year with the majority occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 1998).”

“Malaria has been estimated to cause 9% of all disease in Africa (Nchinda, 1998).”

“According to recent data, there are 1.5 – 2.7 million deaths due to malaria each year, the bulk of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa where an estimated 360 million people live in areas of stable, endemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission (Snow et al., 1999a).”

Rolling Back Malaria | WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION | 1999

Almost 300 million clinical cases of malaria occur worldwide each year and over one million people die.

Almost 90% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where young children are the most affected.

Malaria is directly responsible for one in five childhood deaths in Africa and indirectly contributes to illness and deaths from respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and malnutrition.

The author then uses factual information in a manner that is very misleading.

“Chloroquine, perhaps the best ever antimalarial drug, and certainly the most widely used, is now failing against falciparum malaria in most areas of the tropical world.”


“In some areas, such as parts of South-East Asia and South America, chloroquine is now completely ineffective against P. falciparum malaria.”

True, but we’re talking about Africa. That’s where the problem is.

“In many parts of India and Africa, its effectiveness is falling rapidly.”

 True, but still misleading. Per the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), “despite declining use, CQ remained the first-line therapy for uncomplicated P.f. malaria in the majority of sub-Saharan countries until after 2000.” | US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

“For the treatment of falciparum malaria, the usual successor to chloroquine is a combination of pyrimethamine and a long acting sulphonamide (SP), which is also affordable and well tolerated. Five countries in Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland) have now been forced to switch from chloroquine to SP as the first line antimalarial treatment.”

“Unfortunately, in several of the areas where it has been deployed, notably South-East Asia and South America, P. falciparum has become widely SP-resistant.”

I thought we were talking about sub-Saharan Africa.

The resurgence of malaria (and AIDS) is largely the result of ‘foreign policy’ decisions, made during the Bush & Clinton administrations.

World Health Organization (WHO) backs controversial chemical for malaria control | SCI DEV NET | SEP 18, 2006

The controversial insecticide DDT — which most nations have banned — is back on the menu for malaria control after the World Health Organization reversed a 30-year old policy on Friday (15 September).

The move puts annual indoor spraying of DDT alongside drugs and bednets as one of the three main tools for controlling the disease.

“The scientific and programmatic evidence clearly supports this reassessment,” said Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, assistant director-general for HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria at the World Health Organization (WHO).

“[Indoor spraying] has proven to be just as cost-effective as other malaria prevention methods, and DDT presents no health risk when used properly.”

The chemical kills the mosquitoes that spread malaria. It helped eradicate the disease from southern Europe and North America in the 1960s.

DDT is also toxic to birds, fish and mammals. It accumulates in the food chain and remains in the environment for many years. In the 1970s, growing awareness of these threats led many countries to ban its use in agriculture.

Malaria linked to catastrophic spread of AIDS in Africa | SCI DEV NET | DEC 8, 2006

Research in Kenya indicates that the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS across Africa could be linked to malaria.

The work has important implications for public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need to tackle both diseases together.

There is considerable geographical overlap between HIV/AIDS — which infects over 40 million people in Africa — and malaria, which causes 500 million clinical infections each year.

People with both malaria and HIV/AIDS are more likely to transmit the HIV virus, according to the study published in the journal Science today (8 December). This may have promoted the rapid spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

“We have always known the relationship between [malaria and HIV/AIDS], but we did not know the impact it had on the spread: now we have a reference point,” says Ayub Manya, an epidemiologist with the Kenyan National Malaria Control Programme.

World Bank head praises DDT use against malaria | SCI DEV NET | MAR 19, 2007

World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz has praised South Africa’s malaria control programme, saying the country’s use of indoor residual spraying has reduced malaria episodes.

Wolfowitz says he will consider taking South Africa’s approach to other malaria-affected countries. He committed around US$48 million for malaria control in 14 African countries, which could increase, depending on success.

’The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group’

The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group – having a joint vision for a major contribution to a world free from malaria morbidity and mortality through vaccination – has its origins in discussions among representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
The European Commission (EC)
The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP)
The European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Extramural Malaria Program
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Malaria Vaccine Development Program (MVDP)
The Wellcome Trust
The World Health Organization (WHO) Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR)

This is not limited to Malaria or Clinton.


The President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.

Implementing Agencies

Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC)
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Department of Defense (DoD)
Department of Commerce (DoC)
Department of Labor (DoL)
Peace Corps

The program has provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) to over 7.7 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings and supported HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for more than 56.7 million people as of 2014.[1] PEPFAR increased the number of Africans receiving ART from 50,000 at the start of the initiative in 2004.[2][3][4] PEPFAR has been called the largest health initiative ever initiated by one country to address a disease. The budget presented for the fiscal year 2016 included a request for $1.11 billion for PEPFAR as well as contributions from global organizations such as UNAIDS and private donors.

Clinton Health Access Initiative Donors

Africa’s clinical trial: Big Pharma deploys R&D in Africa | THIS IS AFRICA | JUN 24, 2013

Aside from the most contentious episodes, there was also a general lack of interest in product development.

Companies showed little inclination to research the so-called ‘neglected’ diseases, as they could not see any way to recoup their investment.

Only 13 new drugs were developed for this disease group between 1975 and 1996 out of more than 1,200 new drugs globally, and all but four were accidental by-products of other research.

By 1995, the 15 biggest pharmaceutical companies had virtually closed down tropical disease research efforts.

The End Of Antibiotics | NEWSWEEK | MAR 27, 1994

Indeed, it looks like medicine declared victory and went home too soon.

Every disease-causing bacterium now has versions that resist at least one of medicine’s 100-plus antibiotics.

The financial toll is steep, too. Because the first antibiotic prescribed often fails, the patient has to try several.

How did we get into this bind? In their eagerness to finish off the old diseases, doctors and patients have, paradoxically, given them new life.

Patients demand antibiotics for viral infections, like colds, that antibiotics cannot touch; every dose of antibiotics makes it that much easier for resistance to spread.

Also, doctors sometimes dispense antibiotics without knowing whether the sore throat, or even the pneumonia, is indeed caused by bacteria

Not the only epidemic caused by malpractice.

America’s Addiction to Opiods: Heroin and Prescription Drug Abuse | DRUGABUSEdotGOV | MAY 14, 2014

The abuse of and addiction to opioids such as heroin, morphine, and prescription pain relievers is a serious global problem that affects the health, social, and economic welfare of all societies.

It is estimated that between 26.4 million and 36 million people abuse opioids worldwide, with an estimated 2.1 million people in the United States suffering from substance use disorders related to prescription opioid pain relievers in 2012 and an estimated 467,000 addicted to heroin.

The consequences of this abuse have been devastating and are on the rise. For example, the number of unintentional overdose deaths from prescription pain relievers has soared in the United States, more than quadrupling since 1999.

There is also growing evidence to suggest a relationship between increased non-medical use of opioid analgesics and heroin abuse in the United States.

“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”

Small But Growing Number of Doctors Face Criminal Charges Over Prescription Drugs | DRUGFREEdotORG | SEP 15, 2011

Doctors must lead us out of our opioid abuse epidemic | CNN | JUN 2, 2016

We’ve got the best pharmaceutical companies, folks | BAYER | WIKIPEDIA

Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.

Instead, the experiment produced an acetylated form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself.

The head of Bayer’s research department reputedly coined the drug’s new name, “heroin,” based on the German heroisch, which means “heroic, strong” (from the ancient Greek word “heros, ήρως”).

Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but their scientists discovered ways to make it, and Bayer led commercialization of heroin.

Yes, Bayer Promoted Heroin for Children — Here Are The Ads That Prove It | BUSINESS INSIDER | NOV 17, 2011

It’s not news that Bayer, the venerable German drug company, made its first fortunes in the late 1890s when it commercialized both aspirin and heroin as cough, cold and pain remedies.

Many people have seen the sepia images of vintage Bayer’s “Heroin” brand medicine bottles.

But it’s less widely known that Bayer promoted heroin for use in children suffering from coughs, colds and “irritation” as late as 1912, according to an anti-Bayer watchdog group.



“Hoffmann, working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, was instructed by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.”


“Scientific insight must strike the right balance between providing maximum relief from suffering while minimizing associated risks and adverse effects.”

Returning to Malaria.

Unethical Clinical Trials Still Being Conducted in Developing Countries | HUFFINGTON POST | OCT 3, 2014

In 1997, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group brought widespread international attention to unethical clinical trials.

The trials were testing new methods for preventing the spread of HIV infection from pregnant women to their babies before or after giving birth in developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.

In each of these trials, most of which were funded by the U.S. government, some women were randomly assigned to receive placebos or other treatments known to be ineffective, rather than a drug proven effective in preventing the spread of HIV infection from mother to baby.

The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review | WORKING PAPERS – HARVARD | MAR 1999

In 1990, the WHO estimated global malaria incidence at about 120 million clinical cases annually.

In 1994, they estimated 300-500 million cases annually.

The life-cycle of vector-borne diseases like malaria is complex relative to that of many directly-transmitted human diseases (including bacterial or viral diseases like bacterial meningitis or HIV).

Figure 1 shows an overlay of data from World Health Organization maps of malaria risk in 1946, 1966, and 1994, illustrating the extent of this localization to the tropics. Of about 120 countries, islands, or colonies where malaria was endemic in 1945, the disease has disappeared from 15 European countries, about seven islands or archipelagoes, the United States, Israel, and Chile.



As table 1 shows, the current (1999) situation is not uniform.

For example, only 9% of Malaysia’s population lives in regions where malaria is transmitted, and in 1994 59,000 cases of malaria were diagnosed in health clinics serving a total population of 20 million people. In contrast, the whole of Tanzania’s population of 29 million remains at risk of contracting the disease, with more than 8 million diagnosed in health clinics in 1994.

About 40% of the world’s population remains at risk for infection, of whom 19% live in Africa; in addition, about 90% of clinical malaria cases occur in sub-saharan Africa.




Africa is the world region that is most affected by malaria: In 2015, the African continent held 9 out of 10 malaria victims

Conducting clinical trials in emerging markets of sub-Saharan Africa: review of guidelines and resources for foreign sponsors | DOVE PRESS | OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC & MEDICAL RESEARCH | JAN 7, 2015

Clinical trials provide a foundation for new drug development processes, as well as for product license extensions for existing therapies.

The reduction in the amount of time and cost to conduct a clinical trial becomes important, as competition to bring a new drug to the market is increasing, and so is the search for new markets.

Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia offer a diverse patient population, as well as a comparatively research-friendly and ambitious government to develop these countries as pharmaceutical and health sectors of excellence.

All these countries have their own guidelines to conduct clinical trials that feature some similarities and some subtle differences.

Over the last decade, the guidelines have been evolving to provide a good ground to foreign sponsor, which carry out clinical trials while keeping the interest of patients as a priority.

Anger at deadly Nigerian drug trials | BBC NEWS | JUN 20, 2007

In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria.

Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to administer an experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, to approximately 200 children.

Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities.

Tenofovir trials on HIV transmission | THE LANCET | SOMO pg 4 | 2004–2005

Drugs | lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir) + tenofovir (Viread) or nevirapine (Viramune) or abacavir (Ziagen) (DART trial)
Treatment | Anti-retroviral therapy (ART)
Sponsors | UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Rockefeller Foundation, DfID (Uganda), GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Boehringer-Ingelheim
Period | 2003 – 2006 (DART trial
Location | Uganda, Zimbabwe, Côte d’Ivoire


ART treatment interruption trials (DART TRIALS) | SOMO pg 3 | 2003-2006

Drugs | Tenofovir (Viread)
Treatment | Prevention of HIV transmission
Sponsors | Gilead, US CDC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Research organization | Family Health International (FHI) in Africa, US NIH in Cambodia
Period | 2004 – 2005
Location | Cameroon, Thailand, Nigeria

Nevirapine PMTCT trials in Uganda | SOMO pg 6

Drug | nevirapine (Viramune)
Treatment | HIV prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)
Sponsors | Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), US National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Period | 1997 – 2003
Location | Uganda

Ragaglitazar trials in India and other countries | SOMO pg 12

Drugs | ragaglitazar
Treatment | Diabetes treatment
Sponsors | Novo Nordisk
Period | 2002
Location | 32 countries, including India

’Many drugs for U.S. kids tested in poor countries’ | REUTERS | AUG 23, 2010

A law intended to speed up development of new drugs for U.S. kids has ended up financing clinical trials in poor countries, where the medicines might never become available.”The trend that we describe brings up some scientific and ethical problems,” said Dr. Sara K. Pasquali, a pediatrician at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, whose findings appear in the journal Pediatrics.According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.”Recruiting people is easy, getting informed consent is easy, getting approval is easy, paying the patients and paying the doctors is easy,” Ghayur said. “The physicians and investigators have absolutely no idea about the seriousness of the situation.”


1998 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $120,000
1999 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $140,000
2000 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2001 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $20,000
2002 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $160,000
2003 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $330,000
2004 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2005 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000
2006 | Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America | $360,000

According to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, a trade association, there is no difference in the way trials are conducted in the U.S. and abroad.

Well, at least he’s honest.


Trials on foster care children in New York | SOMO pg 14

Drugs | Various ARV drug combinations and vaccines: didanosine, zidovudine, nevirapine, ritonavir, valacyclovir, Live-Attenuated Varicella Vaccine (Varivax) Seven Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Recombinant Interleukin-2 (rIL-2) Recombinant Envelope Proteins of HIV-1 gp160 and gp120
Treatment | ARV therapy, vaccination against infectious diseases
Sponsors | US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Genentech, MicroGeneSystems, Lederle-Praxis Biologicals
Period | 1997 – 2002
Location | New York, US

Guinea Pig Kids | BBC | NOV 29, 2004

HIV positive children – some only a few months old – are enrolled in toxic experiments without the consent of guardians or relatives.The city’s Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) does not even require a court order to place HIV kids with foster parents or in children’s homes, where they can continue to give them experimental drugs.

‘New York’s HIV experiment’ | BBC | NOV 30, 2004

Jacklyn Hoerger’s job was to treat children with HIV at a New York children’s home.But nobody had told her that the drugs she was administering were experimental and highly toxic.

SFBC Miami test centre | SOMO pg 7

Drugs | Various
Sponsors | Pfizer, Merck & Co, Johnson & Johnson, Schering-Plough, Theravance, Purdue Pharma, AstraZeneca, and others
Research organization | SFBC
Period | 2000 – 2005
Location | Miami, USA

Side Effects May Include Lawsuits | NEW YORK TIMES | OCT 2, 2010

Every major company selling the antipsychotics — Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — has either settled recent government cases, under the False Claims Act, for hundreds of millions of dollars or is currently under investigation for possible health care fraud.


2012 | Bristol-Myers Squibb | $100,000

1999 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2000 | Eli Lilly & Co | $80,000
2004 | Pfizer Inc | $100,000
2005 | Pfizer Inc | $180,000
2006 | Pfizer Inc | $240,000
2007 | Pfizer Inc | $40,000
2011 | Johnson & Johnson | $100,000
2012 | Johnson & Johnson | $160,000
2013 | Johnson & Johnson | $200,000
2014 | Johnson & Johnson | $50,000


Johnson & Johnson | $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca | PLC $100,001 – $250,000
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP | $50,001 – $100,000

Malaria drug causes brain damage that mimics PTSD: case study | MILITARY TIMES | AUG 11, 2016

The case of a service member diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder but found instead to have brain damage caused by a malaria drug raises questions about the origin of similar symptoms in other post-9/11 veterans.

According to the case study published online in Drug Safety Case Reports in June, a U.S. military member sought treatment at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, for uncontrolled anger, insomnia, nightmares and memory loss.

The fix is in

Leaked Podesta email discussing price fixing AIDS drugs for their benefit. | WIKILEAKS | DEC 12, 2011

“We were taken by surprise by President Clinton’s comments on world AIDS day and wish that someone had consulted with us before he made these comments.” …

…” We have always told the drug companies that we would not pressure them and create a slippery slope where prices they negotiate with us for poor countries would inevitably lead to similar prices in rich countries.” …

… “We would have to initiate discussions with multiple state health officials as well as HHS in addition to talking with the drug companies.” …

… “Whatever we decide, we need to make a decision quickly and President Clinton and CHAI need to be in synch. I do not think it is a good idea for President Clinton to be taking one position and CHAI another.” …

Is the Clinton Foundation Responsible for the High Price of AIDS Drugs in the US? | HUFFINGTON POST | DEC 30, 2016

“If you really had to think long and hard about it, the ultimate result of years of negotiations by the Clinton Foundation was that the price of AIDS drugs ended up being high in the US.”

“Furthermore, African governments were paranoid that drug companies were a part of a massive conspiracy suppressing their countries.”


Clinton Foundation AIDS Program Distributed ‘Watered-Down’ Drugs to Third World Countries | DAILY CALLER | SEP 19, 2016

Former President Bill Clinton and his Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) distributed “watered-down” HIV/AIDs drugs to patients in sub-Saharan Africa, and “likely increased” the risks of morbidity and mortality.

The CHAI program to help AIDS victims is considered one of the Clinton Foundation’s most important contributions and is probably its best known initiative.

Ranbaxy ultimately pleaded guilty in 2013 to seven criminal counts with intent to defraud and the introduction of adulterated drugs into interstate commerce.

The Department of Justice further levied a $500 million fine and forfeiture on the company.

Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. donated $100,001 – $250,000 to the Clinton Foundation.


Clinton Foundation Advised World Bank on Contracts That Netted Donors Millions | FREE BEACON | AUG 16, 2016

Two of every three dollars spent acquiring anti-tuberculosis drugs through the program, which is administered by the World Bank, have gone to two companies—Swiss health care giant Novartis and Indian drug company Lupin Ltd.—that together have donated up to $130,000 to the Clinton Foundation.

The project, dubbed the Second National Tuberculosis Control Project (SNTCP), is financed by the World Bank’s International Development Association, which receives the bulk of its funding from the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany.

Clinton has pointed to her foundation’s work in promoting access to pharmaceuticals in the developing world as an example of its laudatory humanitarian mission.

However, critics have noted how beneficiaries of other foundation-backed pharmaceutical access programs have made large financial contributions to the group. Companies that received funds from the foundation to provide low-cost HIV drugs, for instance, were donors to the foundation.


The Clinton Foundation Likely Facilitated The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa Through Its Health Access Initiative.

The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa May Have Increased Patient Mortality Rates.

Watered Down HIV/AIDS ARVs Were Purchased With Taxpayer Money Through PEPFAR As A Result of Price Agreements, Some of Which Were Likely Negotiated By The Clinton Foundation.

President Clinton Was Personally Enriched With Million Dollar Consulting Contracts By A Friend of Convicted Felon, and Ranbaxy advocate, Rajat Gupta From 2002-2008.

Lobbyists for Clinton’s ‘Enemies’ Are Bankrolling Her Campaign | FREE BEACON | OCT 14, 2015

Asked to name the enemies that she is most proud of during Tuesday’s Democratic presidential debate, Hillary Clinton cited industries represented by lobbyists who are among her top campaign fundraisers.

In addition to Iran and the Republican Party, Clinton said she was proud to count “the health insurance companies” and “the drug companies” as her enemies.

Those industries’ lobbyists do not appear to share that enmity. By mid-July, seven of them had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for her presidential campaign, according to campaign finance records.

They include Heather and Tony Podesta, the recently divorced Democratic power brokers. Heather Podesta represents health insurer Cigna, while Tony lobbies on behalf of pharmaceutical firms Amgen and EMD Serono, a division of drug giant Merck.

The Podestas have also given as much as $150,000 to the Clinton Foundation, according to that group’s list of donors.

Insurers Humana and Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina and drug company Pfizer have donated between $1 million and $5 million. Merck has given $250,000 to $500,000; AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson have donated $100,000 to $250,000.

One of the speakers at this year’s annual Clinton Global Initiative summit was Merck chairman and chief executive Kenneth Frazier, a PhRMA board member. Last year, CGI hosted the president of health care consulting firm Rabin Martin, which represents a number of drug companies. The year before, it announced financial commitments from Pfizer, one of multiple such charitable commitments that drug company has made through the Clinton Foundation.

Clinton Foundation Briefing: Africa 2012 | WIKILEAKS (pg. 9 of attachment)

“CLINTON HEALTH ACCESS INITIATIVE (CHAI) first began working in South Africa in 2003, when the government asked for assistance to develop a plan to significantly scale up HIV services and access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 2009, CHAI was invited back to partner with the South African Government to help improve the response to HIV and TB, which laid the foundation for the most aggressive expansion of HIV testing and treatment ever attempted in the world. In addition to the CHAI HIV/AIDS work, CHAI also supports the National Department of Health (NDOH) with efforts to eliminate malaria.”

“CHAI worked with the government to develop implementation plans for testing and treatment and to select facilities for ART scale-up. From April 2010 to March 2012, the number of facilities providing ART increased from 495 to over 3000, and in the last year close to 430,000 people started treatment. Since April 2010, nearly 20 million HIV tests were conducted in South Africa.”

Microsoft Joins Child Safety Advocates, Law Enforcement for Fourth Global Law Enforcement Training in Paarl, South Africa | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | SEP 6, 2004

PAARL, SOUTH AFRICA/PRNewswire-FirstCall/ – To address the growing problem of children’s safety on the Internet around the world, the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children, Interpol and Microsoft Corp. (Nasdaq: MSFT) continue their series of international training programs for law enforcement personnel who investigate computer-facilitated crimes against children this week in Paarl, Western Cape, South Africa.

The training conference, which begins Sept. 6 and runs through Sept. 9, brings together 73 worldwide law enforcement representatives from 12 countries for four days of extensive training on investigating online child predators, collecting evidence and computer forensic information, and seeking private industry assistance in child exploitation investigations. Representatives from Botswana, France, Ghana, Italy, Lesotho, Qatar, South Africa, Spain, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe are meeting in Paarl this week

CHAI UPDATE – February 2013 | WIKILEAKS (attachment)

International Centre Training Initiative Breaks Ground In The Middle East | INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN | JUN 6, 2005

AMMAN, JORDAN – As the World Wide Web drapes itself across the globe, sexual predators are finding new ways to weave themselves into our homes and our children’s lives. The growing problem of online child sexual exploitation, and the demand for a law-enforcement response, has led the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (International Centre), in partnership with Microsoft and Interpol, to host a series of international training programs for law-enforcement personnel who investigate these crimes. The series continues this month in Amman, Jordan. There are 98 participating law-enforcement officers from six different countries, including Jordan, China, Italy, Denmark, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia.

Qatar Investment Authority

The Qatar Investment Authority (Arabic: جهاز قطر للإستثمار) (QIA) is Qatar‘s state-owned holding company that can be characterized as a National Wealth Fund. It specializes in domestic and foreign investment. The QIA was founded by the State of Qatar in 2005 to strengthen the country’s economy by diversifying into new asset classes.


Qatar Investment Authority owns (100%) Qatar Holding LLC, and is associated with Qatar National Bank (50%).

QIA is affiliated with Qatar Islamic Bank (16.67%) and with Ubac Curaçao NV (1.35%).


In January 2013, one writer pegged the QIA investment in Britain at 30 billion euros, France 10 billion euros and Germany 5 billion euros,[5] while another reported that the total assets under management in June 2013 was on the order of $100 billion.[12] Qatar Holding’s stake in Barclays rose to 12.7% following Barclays’ capital raising in October 2008.[13] Qatar Investment Authority holds a small stake in Fisker Automotive. It also holds about 17% stake in the Volkswagen Group, Porsche, Hochtief,[14] as well as investments in Sainsbury’s.[15] The French government has made of Qatar a strategic partner, and the list of partnerships between the two states includes Lagardère (12%) Total (4%), EADS (6%), Technip, Air Liquide, Vinci SA (5%), GDF Suez, Veolia (5%), Vivendi, Royal Monceau, France Telecom and Areva.[5][14][16] In February 2009, France accorded special beyond-OECD investment privileges to Qatar and its State-Owned Enterprises; one example is capital gains exemptions in France.[16] The QIA is also reported to hold part of Xstrata (GLENCOR).

Industry-sponsored clinical drug trials in Egypt | SOMO | JUN 21, 2016

The past 20 years have seen a considerable shift in the location of clinical drug trials sponsored by transnational pharmaceutical companies (TNCs), with a significant ex-pansion of such tests being conducted in low- and middle-income settings. This increased offshoring may result in serious ethical violations as highlighted by several recent field investigations and media reports.

An attractive research infrastructure, a fast-growing and largely treatment-naïve population, and lower costs make Egypt among the most popular places in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region for offshoring medicine testing. Egypt is second only to South Africa on the African continent in terms of the number of TNC-sponsored clinical trials it hosts.

Of the 57 international drug trials that were active in Egypt in February 2016, over half were cancer trials. The two Swiss giants Novartis and Roche are responsible for almost 50 per cent of the international drug trials taking place in the country. The Arab spring events of early 2011 and the subsequent political unrest had no chilling effect on the number of active international drug trials – on the contrary.

Egypt has the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis C in the world, and was the frst low- or middle-income country in 2014 to negotiate preferential pricing for the new direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment sofosbuvir (Sovaldi®) with manufacturer Gilead.

Raymond Schinazi fled Nasser’s Egypt to become pioneer in antivirals | FINANCIAL TIMES | JUL 27, 2014

He personally had a hand in discovering and developing several key treatments for HIV and hepatitis C. These include Gilead’s Sovaldi, which has had the best-selling debut in pharmaceutical history: sales hit $5.8bn in the first half of 2014.

The Drug That is Bankrupting America | HUFFINGTON POST | FEB 2, 2015

Former VA Scientist Responds to Lawmaker’s Suspicions over Drug Sale | MILITARYdotCOM

The drug shown to cure hepatitis C is sold by Gilead Sciences of California under the brand name Sovaldi, but it was developed at Pharmasset, a private lab owned by Dr. Raymond Schinazi while he worked for the VA Medical Center in Atlanta and Emory University.

Today, skeptical lawmakers question whether Schinazi got rich using VA resources and funding. He sold Pharmasset, and with it the drug, to Gilead in 2011 for $11 billion.

Hepatitis C Drug Maker is Price Gouging, republican lawmaker says | MILITARY TIMES | JAN 27, 2016

The chairman of the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee has accused the makers of hepatitis C drug sofosbuvir of opportunism and price-gouging for charging the U.S. government up to $68,000 for a treatment regimen that costs about $1,400 to manufacture.

Dr. Raymond F. Schinazi

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Board of Advisors
Emory University School of Medicine | Professor of Pediatrics
RFS Pharma LLC | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences in 2003)
Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Founder
Pharmasset (VRUS) | Founder (Sold to Gilead Sciences for $11B IN 2012)
Foundation for AIDS Reserach | Governing Trustee

The pharmaceutical lobbying industry is worth over double the oil and gas sector | OPEN SECRETS

In the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic shift in clinical trial practices with companies now primarily outsourcing pipeline testing to third world countries. | SOMO

During this time, the Clinton Foundation and its partners began constructing a vast network of infrastructure throughout the Third World. Clinton’s trip to Africa in 1998 was the longest trip in history by a US President | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 47421 | ATTACHMENT

They’ve been constructing infrastructure like mad- transportation infrastructure including roads, bridges, seaports, airports, power generation, food production, information (news), telecommunications, intelligence (and intelligence sharing) etc. | UNOHRLLS

Haitian Farmers Reject Monsanto Donation | FOOD SAFETY NEWS | JUN 7, 2010

Why Seven African Nations Joined Anti-Monsanto Protests Last Weekend | THINKPROGRESS | OCT 17, 2013

 Lobbyists for Monsanto, ExxonMobil Raise Money for Hillary Clinton | BLOOMBERG | JUL 17, 2015

 Twelve reasons for Africa to reject GM crops | GRAINdotORG | JUL 25, 2004


1. (U) This is an action request. See paragraph 12. SUMMARY

2. (SBU) Spain’s MON810 corn crop is under threat from an emerging well-coordinated campaign to ban cultivation of genetically engineered seed varieties in Europe, according to industry sources. The campaign has gained strength and speed in recent months with the April 14 German ban on MON810 cultivation – which followed an EU vote supporting maintenance of a ban in Austria and Hungary. Legislation which threatens MON810 cultivation has also been introduced recently in both the Basque and Catalonian Regional Parliaments.

3. (SBU) In response to invocation of a safeguard and emergency measure to suspend MON810 cultivation in France, the European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) Scientific Opinion of October 29, 2008 found no new scientific evidence of risk related to MON810 plantings. The EFSA report, however, is being questioned. Monsanto maintains that anti-MON810 momentum was gained by a de facto agreement between the Government of France and Greenpeace/Friends of the Earth whereby the GOF would support the anti-GMO movement and environmental activists would turn a blind eye to Sarkozy’s nuclear energy initiatives. A senior Spanish agriculture official has expressed concern that Spain is under increasing pressure within the EU. Post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position, as well as support for a non-USG science fellow to interact with Spanish interlocutors. End Summary.

4. (SBU) Spain was the first EU country to grow genetically modified (GM) corn and now cultivates nearly 75 percent of the EU’s MON810 corn crop – nearly 200,000 acres. During a May 13 meeting with Monsanto’s Director for Biotechnology for Spain and Portugal, Embassy officials were told that Spain is increasingly becoming a target of anti-biotechnology forces within Europe and that Spain’s cultivation of MON810 corn was under serious threat. The sentiment echoed by supporters of agricultural biotechnology regarding a ban on MON810 cultivation in Spain is that “If Spain falls, the rest of Europe will follow.”


12. (SBU) ACTION REQUESTED: In response to recent urgent requests by MARM State Secretary Josep Puxeu and Monsanto, post requests renewed USG support of Spain’s science-based agricultural biotechnology position through high-level USG intervention in support of the EFSA findings. Post also requests USG support for a non-USG science fellow to meet with influential Spanish interlocutors on this issue and assistance with developing an agricultural biotechnology action plan for Spain. Post would also welcome any comments from other posts concerning the anti-GMO campaign. DUNCAN


Animal-to-human organ transplants, known as xenotransplantation, might sound like extraordinary stuff, but Rothblatt has the track record for innovation, the intellectual curiosity, and the deep pockets needed to do pioneering research in this area.

Enter Martine Rothblatt. When she was a he, she wrote her thesis about the intersection of ethics, economics, and- xenotransplantation.

She is the Founder, CEO & Chairman of United Therapeutics | SYNTHETIC GENOMICS


Polymath Martine Rothblatt turns to transplants | FORTUNE

United Therapeutics has teamed up with Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics, a biotech company based in La Jolla, Calif., to develop pigs with genetically modified organs — for transplantation into humans.

Modified pigs to grow humanized lungs | SAN DIEGO TRIBUNE

In a move filled with the promise of scientific innovation but also the prospect of controversy, a La Jolla company is set to announce Tuesday that it will join forces with a biotech firm to create pigs with lungs and other organs that are compatible for transplantation into humans.

The local company is Synthetic Genomics, led by J. Craig Venter, whose world-famous feats include sequencing the human genome. Its partner in the new venture will be Lung Biotechnology — a subsidiary of United Therapeutics, which has a market value of $5.1 billion.

Synthetic Genomics will get a $50 million investment under the research and development agreement, along with milestone payments and royalties from any sales, according to the companies.

Synthetic Genomics plans to use its genomic modification tools to produce pig cells compatible with human immune systems, said Venter, its chairman and CEO.

United Therapeutics — of Silver Spring, Md. — intends to use those cells to make embryos that would be grown into pigs with transplantable organs.


2008 | Synthetic Genomics | $200,000
2009 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2010 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2011 | Synthetic Genomics | $320,000
2012 | Synthetic Genomics | $170,000
2013 | Synthetic Genomics | $100,000
2014 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2015 | Synthetic Genomics | $120,000
2016 | Synthetic Genomics | $90,000

Sounds like a great industry for human testing, which really would be nothing new | WIKIPEDIA PAGE

Getting back to the Clintons.

Clinton Health Access Initiative opened for business in South Africa in 2003. | WIKILEAKS

They brokered the distribution of vital pharmaceutical resources and established “public-private” partnerships in the healthcare industry to formulate public policy, implement planning and monitor the implementation of the programs. The main focuses were HIV/AIDS & Malaria.

South Africa has a public health care system and a private system. The public system, as expected, is terrible. The only people with access to the private sector are- you guessed it, the wealthy.

South Africa is being exploited by the international drug companies to boost patient numbers and that the trials provide no long-term benefit for either the patients or local research staff | The Clinical Trials Industry in South Africa: Ethics, Rules and Realities


Given the current state of South Africa’s struggling public health sector, it is clear that in many cases, people are not in a position to access or afford the medicines or specialist treatment they may need. Therefore the opportunity to participate in clinical trials and receive treatment for free is a tempting proposition for many | Clinical Trials in SA

Andre Pienaar

International Center for Missing & Exploited Children | Director
Good Governance Group (G3) | Founder
C5 Capital (partnered with Amazon Web Services) | Founder
Kroll Inc | Manager, Africa & Natural Resources Division
BAE Systems | Contractor for BAE through C5 Capital
United States Institute of Peace | International Advisory Council

Andre is a private investor. He serves as the Executive Chairman of C5 Partners, a specialist technology investment company. He also serves as the Deputy Chairman of the Advisory Council of Cranemere Inc, a permanent capital industrial investment company.

He founded and served as the Group CEO of the Good Governance Group (G3) (2004-2014), a consulting firm that advises global companies and international law firms on foreign direct investment, compliance and cybersecurity.

He serves as a trustee of the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation, a charity focused on wildlife conservation. Andre is also a Council Member of the African Union Foundation, a charitable organisation emerging from the African Union which works to mobilise domestic resources for Africa’s development. Andre is Founder and Chairman of the Leadership Technology Centre, a charitable organisation which aims to facilitate the provision of technologies and services to community and charity leaders.

Andre is an Advocate of the Supreme Court of South Africa.

Kenya Joins Nations Pursuing Funds Stolen by Ex-Leaders | NEW YORK TIMES | DEC 21, 2003

Inside the corporate intelligence company which bankrolled Liam Fox | THE TELEGRAPH

A South African intelligence expert made payments of as much as £60,000 through his security company for an unregistered charity linked to Dr Liam Fox.

‘Bad to the bone: A medical horror story’ | FORTUNE | SEP 18, 2012

When medical device company Synthes decided to illegally test a bone cement on people, the results were disastrous. A disturbing tale of corporate crime and punishment.

Synthes not only disregarded multiple warnings that it was flouting the rules, but also brushed off scientists’ cautions that the cement could cause fatal blood clots.

Liberal groups refuse to talk about links to funder with tainted history of illegal human experiments | WASHINGTON EXAMINER | JUL 29, 2014

Swiss billionaire Hansjorg Wyss, whose former company conducted illegal human experiments where three elderly patients died.

The Examiner reported July 23 that John Podesta received $87,000 as a paid consultant to a Wyss-controlled foundation before joining President Obama’s inner circle of White House advisers.

Podesta has also benefited from the more than $4 million Wyss has given to the Center for American Progress since 2008.

Podesta was the founding president of CAP and remains as chairman of its board of directors, which also includes Wyss, former Secretary of State Madeline Albright; former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D; and former Obama White House energy czar Carol Browner.

The loyalty appears to be reciprocated, as liberal groups continue to remain silent about their acceptance of millions of dollars in donations from the reclusive Swiss billionaire even as CEO Wyss conducted abhorrent human experiments.

Wyss, who was Synthes CEO and majority stockholder at the time of the indictment, sold Synthes to Johnson & Johnson in 2012 for $21.3 billion.

The Wyss Foundation donated $1,000,001 – $5,000,000 to the Clinton Foundation


Stryker Corporation | CORRECT THE RECORD

Since early 2007, the company has received three Warning Letters from the Food & Drug Administration citing issues in compliancy.

The first of these, a seven-page correspondence, named various issues at an Irish manufacturing facility, such as untimely fix of failures and procedural noncompliance in the testing of failed or otherwise problem-prone devices.

The second, sent November 2007, cites issues at the firm’s Mahwah, New Jersey, facility, including poor fixation of hip implant components, in some instances requiring mitigation by revision surgeries; exceeded microbial level violations in the cleaning and final packaging areas of the sterile implants; and failure to institute measures in prevention of recurrence of these and other problems.

The final warning letter, sent April 2008, cites issues at the firm’s Hopkinton, MA biotechnology facility. Again, issues relate to quality and noncompliance including falsification of documents relevant to the selling of products to hospitals which are to be sold under a limited, government-mandated basis. Stryker maintains that employees involved in the falsification of documents have since been terminated.







One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers’ claims of voting irregularities.

The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar’s two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.


Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya).

Bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world’s second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world’s second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest.

Trafficking in Persons:

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.

The exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem.

Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats.

Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US.

Internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs.

Trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked.

Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.

Granted exemption from downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law;

Authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)


Lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected


For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests.

Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years.

However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population.

Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities.


Tanzania is one of the world’s poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism.

Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession.

Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a “market economy”, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as:


The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force.

Agriculture accounts for 7% of government expenditures.

All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry’s total assets.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania’s aging infrastructure, including rail and port, that provide important trade links for inland countries.

In 2013, Tanzania completed the world’s largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million, and, in December 2014, the Millennium Challenge Corporation selected Tanzania for a second Compact.

In late 2014, a highly publicized scandal in the energy sector involving senior Tanzanian officials resulted in international donors freezing nearly $500 million in direct budget support to the government.

Tanzania: Fight Against Human Trafficking Intensified | ALL AFRICA | AUG 22, 2015

Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery | GVNET


Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery where people profit from the control and exploitation of others. As defined under U.S. federal law, victims of human trafficking include children involved in the sex trade, adults age 18 or over who are coerced or deceived into commercial sex acts, and anyone forced into different forms of “labor or services,” such as domestic workers held in a home, or farm-workers forced to labor against their will.

Girls are exploited in sex trafficking in tourist areas within the country. Boys are subjected to forced labor, primarily on farms, but also in mines, in the informal commercial sector, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats.

Tanzania Trafficking in persons | INDEX MUNDI

Human trafficking: The modern form of slavery eating up East Africa | DAILY MONITOR | SEP 1, 2013

USAID is helping small farmers in Tanzania increase yields and gain access to markets | USAID


Feed the Future: Tanzania | FEEDTHEFUTURE.GOV

Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania | SAGCOT

Anchor Farm Project: Tanzania | CLINTON FOUNDATION

German government funding | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 53308 | MAR 3, 2012

“As you may know, the German Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development, Dr. Dirk Niebel, sent a letter to WJC on Feb 17, suggesting a meeting to discuss partnership. [This is the arm of the German government that funds development projects overseas.]”

“Their priorities are education, entrepreneurship, and clean energy, and their priority regions are Africa and Asia. We honed in on three areas of overlapping interest: (1) CDI, (2) CCI in cities, and (3) islands’ adaptation to climate change.”

“Besides funding for CDI, we also discussed them sharing with us the lessons they have learned on value-add agri-businesses elsewhere in Africa.”

Howard Buffet | WIKILEAKS PODESTA 52883 | MAR 16, 2012
To:,,,, CC:,,, Date: 2012-03-16 13:34 Subject: Howard Buffett

Had a good call today with Howard Buffett. Like WJC, he talked about strengthening agriculture (sustainably) in developing countries in Africa, Latin/Central America, and beyond; and also in reconfiguring US food aid to enable more local purchasing of food aid rather than shipping US farm produce overseas. [Besides running his farm, he runs farms in South Africa and Central America and is currently a UN WFP Ambassador and advocate for their Purchase for Progress initiative.] He was surprised to learn there are so many shared interests. We discussed a few areas of possible future collaboration, all of which effectively are either “talking” or “doing,” on which I’d welcome your feedback:


COUNTRY VISIT. We discussed WJC’s agriculture work in Rwanda/Malawi/Peru/Colombia and he is intrigued. He said he’s visiting South Africa (where he runs a 9,000 acre farm) in August and would like to visit Malawi/Rwanda to see CF projects. We can help facilitate his visit. I didn’t mention WJC’s Africa trip but should we consider a joint-visit whenever WJC goes? [He liked the Neno wheat example of working ourselves out of a job.]

– CDI. Funding for scaling-up commercial farms in Malawi/Tanzania. I explained our interest in growing the program, he said he’d like to work together given a lot of shared interests, and that he’ll be able to make a decision after seeing our work first-hand. Whenever he visits Malawi, we should be prepared with a specific ask.

CARLOS SLIM. He said he has been in discussions with Marco about doing joint agriculture work in Mexico and he asked if we’d be open to discussing it and to WJC being involved as the convener. I said we work with Slim as well and that we’d be happy to discuss it together.


He is writing a book and would like to profile WJC’s agriculture work (we discussed Malawi). I said we’d be happy to discuss it further and provide him with more information about the projects. – CGI. He’s going to try to come to CGI in September. He said it’s right around corn harvest so he doesn’t like being away from his farm but he will try to come for one day.

He asked if there any appetite to do joint advocacy on agriculture issues – most notably US food aid. I tried to bring it back to CGI as an opportunity for him to share his message there under the umbrella of CGI. It would be good to give him information on any agriculture-related programming or action networks being contemplated for September, for him to weigh-in on.

Hope this helps, and I’d welcome your feedback. Thanks, Ami


New generation of African leaders

The term “new generation” or “new breed” of African leaders was a buzzword widely used in the mid-late 1990s to express optimism in a new generation of African leadership. It has since fallen out of favor, along with several of the leaders the term was used for.

When US president Bill Clinton made his African journey in March 1998, he helped popularize this notion when he said he placed hope in a new generation of African leaders devoted to democracy and economic reforms. Although Clinton did not identify the African leaders by name, it is generally assumed that he was referring to, among others, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia and Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea.


Professional Services Council

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $1,690,000

2007 Professional Services Council $40,000
2008 Professional Services Council $310,000
2009 Professional Services Council $170,000
2010 Professional Services Council $110,000
2011 Professional Services Council $170,000
2012 Professional Services Council $280,000
2013 Professional Services Council $280,000
2014 Professional Services Council $120,000
2015 Professional Services Council $120,000
2016 Professional Services Council $90,000


Alfred Mann Foundation

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $1,100,000

2008 Alfred Mann Foundation $0
2009 Alfred Mann Foundation $320,000
2010 Alfred Mann Foundation $320,000
2011 Alfred Mann Foundation $320,000
2014 Alfred Mann Foundation $140,000


Amgen Inc.

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $4,100,000

2003 Amgen Inc $100,000
2004 Amgen Inc $460,000
2005 Amgen Inc $440,000
2006 Amgen Inc $520,000
2007 Amgen Inc $260,000
2008 Amgen Inc $240,000
2009 Amgen Inc $330,000
2010 Amgen Inc $290,000
2011 Amgen Inc $240,000
2012 Amgen Inc $320,000
2013 Amgen Inc $240,000
2014 Amgen Inc $240,000
2015 Amgen Inc $240,000
2016 Amgen Inc $180,000


Amphastar Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2009 Amphastar Pharmaceuticals $160,000
2010 Amphastar Pharmaceuticals $210,000


Amylin Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2007 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $120,000
2008 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $180,000
2009 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2010 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2011 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2012 Amylin Pharmaceuticals $100,000



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2000 Applera Corp $40,000 Celera Genomics
2001 Applera Corp $40,000 Celera Genomics



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2007 Covidien Ltd $140,000
2008 Covidien Ltd $180,000
2009 Covidien Ltd $260,000
2010 Covidien Ltd $240,000
2011 Covidien Ltd $200,000
2012 Covidien Ltd $230,000
2013 Covidien Ltd $240,000
2014 Covidien Ltd $20,000


Cubist Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2007 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $20,000
2008 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $160,000
2009 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $280,000
2010 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $300,000
2011 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2012 Cubist Pharmaceuticals $240,000


Elsai Co

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2009 Eisai Co Ltd $200,000
2010 Eisai Co Ltd $210,000
2011 Eisai Co Ltd $200,000
2012 Eisai Co Ltd $240,000
2013 Eisai Co Ltd $80,000

2000px-eli_lilly_and_company-svgEli Lily

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

1999 Eli Lilly & Co $80,000
2000 Eli Lilly & Co $80,000

 Sanofi Pasteur - CMJN - Colors


Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

1998 Genzyme Corp $60,000
1999 Genzyme Corp $40,000
2000 Genzyme Corp $140,000
2001 Genzyme Corp $80,000
2002 Genzyme Corp $100,000
2003 Genzyme Corp $120,000
2004 Genzyme Corp $140,000
2005 Genzyme Corp $120,000
2006 Genzyme Corp $160,000
2007 Genzyme Corp $160,000
2008 Genzyme Corp $400,000
2009 Genzyme Corp $510,000
2010 Genzyme Corp $340,000


Gilead Sciences

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2009 Gilead Sciences $150,000
2010 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2011 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2012 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2013 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2014 Gilead Sciences $360,000
2015 Gilead Sciences $100,000


Johnson & Johnson

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2011 Johnson & Johnson $100,000
2012 Johnson & Johnson $160,000
2013 Johnson & Johnson $200,000
2014 Johnson & Johnson $50,000


Merck KGaA (on behalf of subsidiary EMD Serono)

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2007 Merck KGaA $200,000 EMD Serono Inc
2008 Merck KGaA $150,000 EMD Serono Inc
2009 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2010 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2011 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2012 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2013 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2014 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2015 Merck KGaA $240,000 EMD Serono Inc
2016 Merck KGaA $180,000 EMD Serono Inc


Millenium Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2004 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $40,000
2005 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $120,000
2006 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $120,000
2007 Millennium Pharmaceuticals $180,000



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $2,320,000

1999 Novartis AG $160,000
2000 Novartis AG $200,000
2005 Novartis AG $320,000
2006 Novartis AG $320,000
2007 Novartis AG $0
2008 Novartis AG $210,000
2009 Novartis AG $240,000
2010 Novartis AG $240,000
2011 Novartis AG $100,000
2014 Novartis AG $180,000
2015 Novartis AG $200,000
2016 Novartis AG $150,000


Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2004 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $20,000
2005 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $180,000
2006 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2007 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $220,000
2008 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $200,000
2009 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2010 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2011 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000
2012 Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals $240,000



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $

2004 Pfizer Inc $100,000
2005 Pfizer Inc $180,000
2006 Pfizer Inc $240,000
2007 Pfizer Inc $40,000


Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America

Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group: $2,010,000

1998 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $120,000
1999 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $140,000
2000 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $160,000
2001 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $20,000
2002 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $160,000
2003 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $330,000
2004 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $360,000
2005 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $360,000
2006 Pharmaceutical Research & Manufacturers of America $360,000



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group:  $2,100,000

1998 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
1999 | Roche Group $160,000 Genentech Inc
2000 | Roche Group $160,000 Genentech Inc
2001 | Roche Group $80,000 Genentech Inc
2002 | Roche Group $180,000 Genentech Inc
2003 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2004 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2005 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2006 | Roche Group $200,000 Genentech Inc
2007 | Roche Holdings $120,000 Genentech Inc
2008 | Roche Holdings $240,000 Genentech Inc
2009 | Roche Holdings $160,000 Genentech Inc


Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group:

2011 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp
2012 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp
2013 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp
2014 Sanofi $240,000 Genzyme Corp



Lobbying fees paid to Podesta Group:

1998 Serono Inc $20,000
1999 Serono Inc $160,000
2000 Serono Inc $120,000
2001 Serono Inc $40,000
2002 Serono Inc $120,000
2003 Serono Inc $70,000
2004 Serono Inc $160,000
2005 Serono Inc $160,000
2006 Serono Inc $120,000
2006 Serono Inc $80,000
2008 Serono Inc $50,000



2011 ViroPharma Inc $40,000
2012 ViroPharma Inc $160,000
2013 ViroPharma Inc $160,000
2014 ViroPharma Inc $10,000