Tanzania suspends agencies over human trafficking | THE HERALD | AUG 21, 2015

DAR ES SALAAM. — Tanzania has suspended about a quarter of its recruitment agencies in a bid to crack down on human trafficking after complaints that girls sent as domestic servants to the Middle East were used as sex slaves and forced to work without pay. Tanzania has been identified internationally as a source country for domestic and transnational trafficking of girls and boys who can end up sexually exploited and in forced labour.

Human rights groups have voiced concerns that trafficking is often facilitated by recruitment agencies, family members and intermediaries, who lure people with promises of lucrative jobs but trap them in domestic servitude and prostitution.

Despite stringent anti-trafficking laws in the east African nation, the exploitation of girls continues unabated, according to activists, with the government accused of not doing enough to stop both internal and transnational trafficking.

Under mounting pressure, Seperatus Fella, secretary of the government’s Anti-Trafficking Secretariat, said the government this week suspended 70 job agencies after receiving complaints about exploitation in the Middle East.

There are 300 job agencies in Tanzania, according to the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Youth Development, with Tanzanian housemaids particularly popular in Oman due to historic links.

“Most of these girls and boys are subjected to commercial sex or work as domestic servants and barmaids, with some sent on forced labour in factories, farms and mines under very poor conditions,” Fella told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

The International Labour Organisation estimates there are 21 million people globally in forced labour or trafficked, including 5,5 million children.

Tanzania’s move comes after a 2014 report on human trafficking by the US department of state accused Tanzania of not making enough progress in addressing the problem.

The US report said the exploitation of girls in domestic servitude was Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem although cases of child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation were increasing on the Kenya-Tanzania border.


The Tanzanian government defended its lack of action by saying human trafficking is a complex multinational business which is difficult to control but its decision to suspend some employment agencies was welcomed by some campaigners.

Dar es Salaam’s Legal and Human Rights Centre said recruitment agents often charge girls between 1 000 000 and 2 000 000 Tanzanian shillings ($470-$940) for transport costs and fees, but they often don’t know what job they are going to.

Swaumu Ali (23), a housemaid, found work in Saudi Arabia through a recruitment agency but returned recently after she found herself being used as a sex slave. She urged other women to speak out when they end up being abused.

“When I arrived in Oman, I didn’t know what was going on, but I ended up being a sex slave. My male employer and his grown-up relatives used me as they pleased,” Ali told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Ali said she was forced to work for 18 hours a day on domestic chores and caring for her employer’s elderly parent. When she asked for her salary her boss refused to pay her and her passport and mobile telephone were confiscated.

“They considered me a prostitute so I was kept in servant quarters away from the main house,” said Ali, who left after a neighbour notified Tanzanian embassy officials of her situation.

Tanzania’s 2008 Anti-Trafficking in Person Act outlaws all trafficking with punishments of one to 10 years in jail, a fine of 1-30 million Tanzanian shillings, or both.

Critics, however, say these penalties are not commensurate with other serious crimes and not an adequate deterrent.

Said Kilufya, whose B&B Agency is one of those suspended, protested the government move, saying they were not consulted.

“I don’t think it is fair to ban organisations which are operating legally without giving them a chance to defend themselves for the alleged offences,” he said. — Reuters.

Tanzania Trafficking in persons | INDEX MUNDI | MAR 31, 2017

Trafficking in persons: current situation: Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem; Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines and quarries, in the informal commercial sector, in factories, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats; Tanzanian children and adults are subjected to domestic servitude, other forms of forced labor, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries with false offers of education or legitimate jobs; trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, South Asia, and Yemen are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Tanzania was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government adopted a three-year national action plan and implementing regulations for the 2008 anti-trafficking law; authorities somewhat increased their number of trafficking investigations and prosecutions and convicted one offender, but the penalty was a fine in lieu of prison, which was inadequate given the severity of the crime; the government did not operate any shelters for victims and relied on NGOs to provide protective services (2015)
Definition: Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues, estimates that 12.3 million people worldwide are enslaved in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, and involuntary servitude at any given time. Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights and freedoms, risking global health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting development by depriving countries of their human capital, and helping fuel the growth of organized crime. In 2000, the US Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), reauthorized in 2003 and 2005, which provides tools for the US to combat trafficking in persons, both domestically and abroad. One of the law�s key components is the creation of the US Department of State�s annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which assesses the government response (i.e., the current situation) in some 150 countries with a significant number of victims trafficked across their borders who are recruited, harbored, transported, provided, or obtained for forced labor or sexual exploitation.
Countries in the annual report are rated in three tiers, based on government efforts to combat trafficking. The countries identified in this entry are those listed in the 2006 Trafficking in Persons Report as Tier 2 Watch List or Tier 3 based on the following tier rating definitions:Tier 2 Watch List countries do not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but are making significant efforts to do so, and meet one of the following criteria:

1. they display a high or significantly increasing numbof victims,

2. they have failed to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons, or,

3. they have committed to take action over the next year.

Tier 3 countries neither satisfy the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking nor demonstrate a significant effort to do so. Countries in this tier are subject to potential non-humanitarian and non-trade sanctions.

Source: CIA World Factbook – This page was last updated on October 8, 2016